# Inference

Helping students understand when information is implied, or not directly stated, will improve their skill in drawing conclusions and making inferences. These skills are needed across the content areas, including reading, science, and social studies. Inferential thinking is a complex skill that develops over time and with experience.

 When to use: Before reading During reading After reading How to use: Individually With small groups Whole class setting

## What is inference?

We learn about some things by observing or experiencing them first-hand. In contrast, when we make inferences, we reach conclusions based on evidence and reasoning. We figure things out by applying our own knowledge and experience to the situation at hand. Helping students understand when information is implied, or not directly stated, will improve their skill in drawing conclusions and making inferences. Inferential thinking is a complex skill that will develop over time and with experience.

## Why teach inference?

• Inference is a prerequisite for higher-order thinking (Marzano, 2010)
• Inferencing skills are needed across the curriculum, from English language arts and math to science and social studies.

## How to teach inference

Helping kids see that they already know how to make inferences can build their confidence and introduce them to the concepts and vocabulary they need to talk about making inferences in their reading. Many models for teaching inference are intended for use with text but can work just as well to guide students through making inferences about pictures, either single images or wordless picture books, as a stepping stone to making inferences about text. With explicit instruction, students can learn to recognize inferences they make about their reading, check their thinking to be sure it makes sense, and adjust their inferences as they get new information.

One simplified model for teaching inference is based on the following assumptions:

• We need to find clues to get some answers.
• We need to add those clues to what we already know or have read.
• There can be more than one correct answer.
• We need to be able to support inferences with evidence.

In this model, teachers pose four questions to students to facilitate a discussion about inferences (Marzano, 2010). The goal is for students to internalize these questions so they can be aware of — and evaluate — their own thinking.

• What is my inference?
This question helps students become aware that they may have just made an inference by filling in information that wasn't directly presented.
• What information did I use to make this inference?
This helps students understand the different types of information they use to make inferences. This may include information presented in the text, or it may be background knowledge that a student brings to the learning setting.
• How good was my thinking?
Once students have identified the premises on which they've based their inferences, they can engage in the most powerful part of the process — examining the validity of their thinking.
• Do I need to change my thinking?
The final step is for students to consider possible changes in their thinking. The point here is not to invalidate students’ original inferences, but rather to help them develop the habit of continually updating their thinking as they gather new information.

One model that teachers can use to teach inference is called “It says, I say, and so” developed by Kylene Beers (2003). Take a look at these graphic organizer examples from ”Goldilocks and the Three Bears,” as well as the steps to solving a math problem about area and diameter.

## Watch a demonstration: grade K-2 inferencing strategies (whole-class)

The teacher walks through kindergarten, first, and second grade lessons using non-text-based strategies to lay the groundwork for making inferences about text (from about 1:12–9:37).

## Watch a classroom lesson: grade 4 ELA reading closely and inferring the mood

The teacher guides students as they work in pairs and as a class to make inferences about a character using evidence from the text. She narrates the steps of the lesson and explains how to differentiate follow-up instruction based on students’ work.

## Watch a demonstration: grade K-2 inferencing strategies (whole-class)

The teacher explains how she structures lessons on inferring using whole-class read-alouds of Mo Willems’s “Elephant and Piggie” and “Pigeon” book series (starting at about 6:07).

## Collect resources

The Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) strategy reinforces inferential thinking. In QAR, students learn that while some questions are "Right There" in the text, others require readers to "Think and Search”—bringing together evidence from the text with their own thinking — in order to draw a conclusion. The QAR strategy helps students recognize and answer non-text-dependent questions, too, but it’s those “Think and Search” questions that ask readers to infer. Visit the QAR strategy page for videos, lesson plans, and graphic organizers.

Inferring about characters This lesson from ReadWriteThink uses a think-aloud procedure to model how to infer character traits and recognize a character's growth across a text. Students also consider the underlying reasons of why the character changed, supporting their ideas and inferences with evidence from the text.

Download this set of inference graphic organizers ›

Into the Book has an interactive activity that helps young children learn about inferring. In the interactive, students try to infer meaning in letters from virtual pen pals. They try to answer two questions: “WHERE is your pen pal?” (inferences about location) and “WHO is your pen pal?” (inferences about personality). Students search for clues in the text, then choose from three possible inferences for each clue.

## Differentiate instruction

For English-learners, readers of different ability levels, or students needing extra support:

• Provide images or video clips for students who may not be able to negotiate the text or by having students draw rather than write their inferences.
• Use graphic organizers like the “It says, I say, So” one to make the steps from observation to inference more explicit.
• Model the observation to inference process over and over again, using as many real-life examples as possible.
• Recognize that the background knowledge upon which inferences are drawn will be different from student to student. Reassure students that answers can be different, but all should be made based on evidence.

## Extend the learning

### Language Arts

Riddles are one way to practice inferential thinking skills because successful readers make guesses based on what they read and what they already know. The object of this online riddle game is to infer what is being described by the clues you read. See this inference riddle game ›

BrainPop Jr. offers several activities for teaching inference, and they offer resources for teachers and parents. See inference activities ›

### Math

The Math Standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) identify standards for PreK-12 students that include developing and evaluating inferences and predictions that are based on data. For young students, the standards specifically state the following:

• Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2, all students should discuss events related to students' experiences as “likely” or “unlikely.”
• Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5, all students should propose and justify conclusions and predictions that are based on data and design studies to further investigate the conclusions or predictions.

### Science

Science teachers spend time helping students develop their observation skills. Inferring and observing are closely related, but they are not identical. Observation is what one sees, inference is an assumption of what one has seen. Observation can be said to be a factual description, and inference is an explanation to the collected data. It's not a guess. If an observation can be termed as a close watch of the world around you through the senses, then inference can be termed as an interpretation of facts that has been observed.

Teachers can start out providing simple observations:

As you're working to develop these skills, encourage your students to incorporate their scientific vocabulary into their statements. “From what I observe on the grass, I infer that…”

Learn more about how to use inference, and other science process skills, to help students understand our water resources. More on science process skills

This strategy guide from Seeds of Science introduces an approach for teaching about how scientists use evidence to make inferences. The guide includes an introductory section about how scientists use evidence to make inferences, a general overview of how to use this strategy with many science texts, and a plan for teaching how scientists gather evidence to make inferences. See teaching inference strategy guide

This lesson from ReadWriteThink uses science to engage students in the process of making inferences. First, students work through a series of activities about making inferences. Then they read a booklet of descriptions of a series of mystery objects that are placed under a microscope. Finally, they look through each microscope and use the formula of schema + text clues = inference to make their own inferences about the identity of each mystery object. See science lesson plan

### Social Studies

In this Teacher Guide from the National Portrait Gallery at the Smithsonian, students use clues in a portrait to infer things about George Washington and his life. They work to identify visual clues the artist used, they compare various portraits of George Washington, and discuss the importance of the different portraits as visual records. See teacher guide

Often, inferring is introduced to students by using familiar symbols, activities, and environments from which they automatically draw inferences or make predictions (an inference about the future). For example, suppose you are about to begin a unit on the Great Depression. You might have students view a picture of the exterior of a mansion and then of a soup line. Then, through questioning, students focus on details, making inferences about the people who live in both places, their socioeconomic status, the kinds of food they eat, the kinds of activities they pursue.

Parents can help to build these skills at home. For ideas to share with parents, see our Growing Readers tip sheet, Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions (in English and Spanish).

## Related strategies

Learn more about inferring, predicting, and other metacognitive strategies in the article Key Comprehension Strategies to Teach.

## See the research that supports this strategy

Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Lemmon, K. (2004). Individual differences in the inference of word meanings from contexts: The influence of reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, and memory capacity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 671-681.

Elleman, A. M. (2017). Examining the impact of inference instruction on the literal and inferential comprehension of skilled and less skilled readers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(6), 761–781. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000180

Gregory, A.E., & Cahill, M. (2010, March). Kindergartners Can Do It, Too! Comprehension Strategies for Early Readers. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 515-520.

Magliano, J.P., Trabasso, T., & Graesser, A.C. (1999). Strategic processing during comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(4), 615-629.

Marzano, R. (2010). Teaching inference. Educational Leadership, 67(7), 80-01.

Ozgungor, S., & Guthrie, J. T. (2004). Interactions among elaborative interrogation, knowledge, and interest in the process of constructing knowledge from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 437-443.

Tarchi, C. (2015) Fostering reading comprehension of expository texts through the activation of readers’ prior knowledge and inference-making skills. International Journal of Educational Research, Volume 72, 80-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.04.013

## Children's books to use with this strategy

### Looking Down

By: Steve Jenkins
Age Level: 6-9

From high above, readers journey from space to earth with a progressively closer view though always looking down. What viewers are seeing changes with each page turn and may yield interesting inference on a number of levels (e.g., what else might one see from space?).

### Nurse, Soldier, Spy: The Story of Sarah Edmonds, A Civil War Hero

By: Marissa Moss
Age Level: 3-6

This lively picture book biography of a woman who disguised herself as a man during the Civil War introduces a time in U.S. history and a bit of women's history. There are inferential thinking opportunities in either subject. (For example: From Sarah's experiences, what can be inferred about women's status in the 19th century? What can be inferred about the status of slaves when one young enslaved man tells Sarah he can't use cash money?)

### I See Myself

By: Vicki Cobb
Genre: Nonfiction
Age Level: 6-9

Brief text and clear illustration combine to present both information and experiments that will encourage "what if" and "what next" discussions that can comfortably and safely combine with activities appropriate for young children.

### Chalk

By: Bill Thomson
Genre: Fiction, Fantasy
Age Level: 6-9

Join three children who find a magical piece of chalk that begins an exciting series of events to figure out "what next." This might be fun to use together with Crockett Johnson's Harold and the Purple Crayon.

### Deep in the Forest

By: Brinton Turkle
Age Level: 3-6

A baby bear explores a human abode in this riff on the Goldilocks tale. Readers could infer seasons, feelings, and consequences in this modern classic.

### What Do You Do with a Tail Like This?

By: Steve Jenkins
Genre: Nonfiction
Age Level: 6-9

Clear, textured illustrations of animals and their special parts (e.g., tail, nose) focus readers on the special function of each. Not only is it likely to generate a description of the appendage but its function (what it does), and of the animal and its environment. Other books by Steve Jenkins, such as Biggest, Strongest, Fastest, may also generate rich descriptive language.

### The Little Plant Doctor: A Story About George Washington Carver

By: Jean Marzollo
Genre: Nonfiction, Biography
Age Level: 3-6

George Washington Carver was always curious and grew into a recognized scientist in spite of the challenges of the time in which he lived. His life and accomplishments become accessible to younger children through the voice of a tree planted by young George, augmented by child-like full color illustrations.

### Pop! A Book About Bubbles

By: Kimberly Brubaker Bradley
Genre: Nonfiction
Age Level: 3-6

Have you ever wondered why bubbles are round? And why they pop? These and other questions are asked and answered in accessible language and crisp, full color photographs. Many easy-to-do science activities are suggested (to be done with adult help).

### If America Were a Village: A Book About the People of the United States

By: David Smith
Genre: Nonfiction
Age Level: 6-9

If all of the 300 million people were simply one village of 100 people, its diversity is easier to understand. That's just what the author has done to make the complex make-up of the U.S. residents (in terms of languages spoken, ages, and more). Colorful illustrations accompany the understandable text. Additional resources complete the book. If the World Were a Village: A Book About the World’s People, also by Smith, looks at the inhabitants of the world as a village to allow its diversity to become more understandable for adults and children.

### Wave

By: Suzy Lee
Genre: Fiction
Age Level: 3-6

No words are needed to share a child's seaside adventure as she plays with the waves, is knocked down by one, and then discovers the sea's gifts brought to shore by the wave. Softly lined wash in a limited color palette evoke a summer afternoon on the beach.

### Pancakes for Breakfast

By: Tomie dePaola
Genre: Fiction
Age Level: 3-6

On a cold morning, a little old lady decides to make pancakes for breakfast, but has a hard time finding all of the ingredients. This wordless picture book tells a story of determination and humor, ideal for young readers who can narrate the story as they go.

Inference, Refers to the skills acquired over time and experience. The predicction is vinculate with inference when, for exaple a teacher is asking what will happen and why, when the child already get the knolage given in the class.

inferencing is a technique used to support the subjective, and objective viewpoint of a situation. inferencing, and predicting is crucial in determining reality, but concerning children ability to enhance their ability to support their predictions through inferences , that will involve using and understaning metaphors, similes; etc: ". Mastering inferences will predict how well you support your answer, like in a essay"

Excellent material and resources that i can implement in my classes.

I love the strategy.
I think this can help us a lot.
Cleotilde urbalejo- Teacher.

Good Job excelent information information that we can use teaching and practicing these classroom strategies Thank You.

These videos are good help with communicating with the children and helping them understand inferences and predictions.

I would like to see strategies for older kids like high school age that need to freshen up their inference skills.

I love the strategy on Inferencing. It works well with the ELL student. It helped my students understand how to infer, by utilizing this strategy. Keep up the good sharing, Reading Rockets-
Sharon Snowton 4th grade Bilingual-ESL Teacher
CHISD