Skip to main content

On this page:

Phonemic Awareness

Hear, identify, and manipulate sounds of spoken words


  • Isolation

    Recognizes individual sounds in words.

  • Identity

    Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of word.s

  • Categorization

    Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of words.

  • Blending

    Combines sequence of sounds into a single word.

  • Segmentation

    Breaks a word into separate sounds.


Know relationship between letters of written language and sounds of spoken language

Explicit and Systematic Instruction

  • Identify useful series of sounds.
  • Teach them in a logical sequence.
  • Apply sounds to reading and writing.


Read text accurately and quickly

Bridge between word recognition and comprehension

  • Provide models of fluent reading.
  • Provide repeated and monitored oral reading.

    Increase practice through audiotapes, peer guidance, tutors, and use of technology.

  • Provide a variety of short text passages at student’s independent reading level.


Words used to communicate effectively or use/recognize in print

Indirect instruction

  • Students engage in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own.

Direct instruction

  • Teach individual words and word learning strategies.
  • Teach use of dictionaries, glossaries, and thesauruses; how to use word parts; and context clues.


Understand what is read

Comprehension strategies

  • Teach students to be aware of what they do and do not understand, & the fix-up strategies.
  • Use graphic and semantic organizers.
  • Use text explicit/implicit and scriptal questions.
  • Teach students to ask their own questions.
  • Teach story structure.
  • Use summarizing.
You are welcome to print copies for non-commercial use, or a limited number for educational purposes, as long as credit is given to Reading Rockets and the author(s). For commercial use, please contact the author or publisher listed.