Hear, identify, and manipulate sounds of spoken words
Recognizes individual sounds in words.
Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of word.s
Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of words.
Combines sequence of sounds into a single word.
Breaks a word into separate sounds.
Know relationship between letters of written language and sounds of spoken language
Explicit and Systematic Instruction
- Identify useful series of sounds.
- Teach them in a logical sequence.
- Apply sounds to reading and writing.
Read text accurately and quickly
Bridge between word recognition and comprehension
- Provide models of fluent reading.
- Provide repeated and monitored oral reading.
Increase practice through audiotapes, peer guidance, tutors, and use of technology.
- Provide a variety of short text passages at student’s independent reading level.
Words used to communicate effectively or use/recognize in print
- Students engage in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own.
- Teach individual words and word learning strategies.
- Teach use of dictionaries, glossaries, and thesauruses; how to use word parts; and context clues.
Understand what is read
- Teach students to be aware of what they do and do not understand, & the fix-up strategies.
- Use graphic and semantic organizers.
- Use text explicit/implicit and scriptal questions.
- Teach students to ask their own questions.
- Teach story structure.
- Use summarizing.