Effective Reading Instruction

Phonemic Awareness

Hear, identify, and manipulate sounds of spoken words


  • Isolation

    Recognizes individual sounds in words.

  • Identity

    Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of word.s

  • Categorization

    Recognizes word with odd sound in a set of words.

  • Blending

    Combines sequence of sounds into a single word.

  • Segmentation

    Breaks a word into separate sounds.


Know relationship between letters of written language and sounds of spoken language

Explicit and Systematic Instruction

  • Identify useful series of sounds.
  • Teach them in a logical sequence.
  • Apply sounds to reading and writing.


Read text accurately and quickly

Bridge between word recognition and comprehension

  • Provide models of fluent reading.
  • Provide repeated and monitored oral reading.

    Increase practice through audiotapes, peer guidance, tutors, and use of technology.

  • Provide a variety of short text passages at student's independent reading level.


Words used to communicate effectively or use/recognize in print

Indirect instruction

  • Students engage in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own.

Direct instruction

  • Teach individual words and word learning strategies.
  • Teach use of dictionaries, glossaries, and thesauruses; how to use word parts; and context clues.


Understand what is read

Comprehension strategies

  • Teach students to be aware of what they do and do not understand, & the fix-up strategies.
  • Use graphic and semantic organizers.
  • Use text explicit/implicit and scriptal questions.
  • Teach students to ask their own questions.
  • Teach story structure.
  • Use summarizing.
Summarized from Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read by the National Institute for Literacy.


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This article was helpful in understanding that phonemic awareness is the ability to hear identify and manipulate sounds of spoken words and recognize individual sounds.

This article was easy to understand and the key points were:Fluency'bridge between word recognition and comprehension and vocabulary: words to communicate effectively or use in print.

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"You may have tangible wealth untold. Caskets of jewels and coffers of gold. Richer than I you can never be — I had a mother who read to me." — Strickland Gillilan