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Research Report

Time to Transfer: Long-Term Effects of a Sustained and Spiraled Content Literacy Intervention in the Elementary Grades

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This experimental study illustrates how sustaining and spiraling science schemas (background knowledge) and vocabulary from Grades 1 to 3 can improve students’ ability to comprehend passages in science, English language arts, and mathematics. Furthermore, findings suggest that systematically building background and vocabulary knowledge can sustain positive gains in elementary-grade students’ reading comprehension ability through the end of Grade 4, 14 months after the conclusion of the intervention activities.


Kim, J. S., Gilbert, J. B., Relyea, J. E., Rich, P., Scherer, E., Burkhauser, M. A., & Tvedt, J. N. (2024). Time to transfer: Long-term effects of a sustained and spiraled content literacy intervention in the elementary grades. Developmental Psychology. Advance online publication.