Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize and manipulate the spoken parts of words. The levels of phonological awareness are, from simplest to most complex: syllables, onset–rime, and phonemes. Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. We know that a student's skill in phonological awareness is a good predictor of later reading success or difficulty. Find out what parents and teachers can do to help children develop this critical literacy skill.

Refresh your classroom instruction! Try the Phonological and Phonemic Awareness module in our free, self-paced online course, Reading 101: A Guide to Teaching Reading and Writing.

Featured partner: National Association for the Education of Young Children

Featured Video: Phonological and Phonemic Awareness

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Our PBS Series:
Launching Young Readers

One-on-one reading intervention with elementary student and teacher

Watch a reading expert work one-on-one with K-3 students, helping them master basic reading skills.

Fred Rogers

Find out about the early building blocks of learning to read and the importance of reading aloud.

Classroom Strategies

Each strategy includes instructions on how to use, downloadable templates and examples, video demonstrations, children's books to use with the strategy, differentiation for ELLs and students with learning disabilities, and supporting research.

Professional Development Webcasts

Listen, watch, and learn from top experts in these engaging roundtable discussions. Each webcast features a 60–minute video as well as recommended readings and suggested discussion questions.

Additional Resources We Recommend

Florida Center for Reading Research
Florida Center for Reading Research
Amplify | Center for Early Reading
Five From Five
Florida Center for Reading Research
"When I say to a parent, "read to a child", I don't want it to sound like medicine. I want it to sound like chocolate. " — Mem Fox