An important first step in helping English language learners (ELLs) succeed is making them feel welcome in the classroom. This will:
- increase your students’ confidence
- make them feel more comfortable in the class
- build a foundation for positive relationships with you and their peers.
Here’s how you can get started!
Stages of cultural accommodation
Chances are that your English language learners (ELLs) come from a culture with traditions and family values that differ from mainstream American culture. These young children not only have the challenge of learning a new language, but also of adjusting to an unfamiliar cultural setting and school system. Imagine what it would be like to step into a foreign classroom where you didn’t understand the language, rules, routines, or expected behavior.
On a daily basis, ELLs are adjusting to new ways of saying and doing things. As their teacher, you are an important bridge to this unknown culture and school system.
In the same way that ELLs go through stages of English language learning, they may also pass through stages of cultural accommodation. These stages, however, may be less defined and more difficult to notice. Being aware of these stages may help you to better understand “unusual” actions and reactions that may just be part of adjusting to a new culture.
- Euphoria: ELLs may experience an initial period of excitement about their new surroundings.
- Culture shock: ELLs may then experience anger, hostility, frustration, homesickness, or resentment towards the new culture.
- Acceptance: ELLs may gradually accept their different surroundings.
- Assimilation/adaptation: ELLs may embrace and adapt to their surroundings and their “new” culture.
What is the silent period?
It is also common for students who are learning a new language to be ‘silent’ for a period of time, when they are listening to the language around them without speaking yet (much as a young child listens to language first before learning to talk). This is considered the first stage of language acquisition.
Patience and creating opportunities for small successes in speaking with you and peers can help build students’ confidence. In addition, keep in mind that students’ silence could also be a sign of respect for you as an authority — and not a sign of their inability or refusal to participate.
Experience with trauma
Students may also have experienced trauma or face different kinds of hardship in the U.S. Learn more in this article from Colorín Colorado: Using a Strengths-Based Approach with ELs: Supporting Students Living with Trauma, Violence and Chronic Stress
What to Do First: Creating a Welcoming Environment
Learn about these important first steps from teacher Amber Jimenez that will help ELLs feel welcome and get them on the path to academic success. Strategies include creating a print-rich environment and connecting content to students’ cultures and experience.
You Are Welcome Here
This award-winning documentary highlights how the Dearborn, MI public school district is helping its immigrant students succeed. Learn more about this project and see related videos .
Showing Students You Care
Corpus Christi teacher Christine Price talks about the importance of showing students you care early on.
Using Parent Letters to Get to Know My Students
Albuquerque teacher Clara Gonzales-Espinoza asks her parents to write her a letter at the beginning of each school year telling her about the child’s personality, interests, strengths, and anything else they think she should know. In this interview, Clara speaks more about this strategy and its impact on her relationships with parents and students.
Classroom strategies: helping your ELLs adjust to new surroundings
Although there are no specific teaching techniques to make ELLs feel that they belong in a new culture, there are ways for you to make them feel welcome in your classroom:
Learn their names
Take the time to learn how to pronounce your ELLs’ names correctly. Ask them to say their name. Listen carefully and repeat it until you know it. If a student’s name is Pedro, make sure you do not call him /peedro/ or Peter. Also, model the correct pronunciation of ELLs’ names to the class so that all students can say the correct pronunciation.
Offer one-on-one assistance when possible
Some ELLs may not answer voluntarily in class or ask for your help even if they need it. ELLs may smile and nod, but this does not necessarily mean that they understand. Go over to their desk to offer individual coaching in a friendly way. For convenience, it may be helpful to seat ELLs near your desk.
Assign a peer partner
Identify a classmate who really wants to help your ELL as a peer. This student can make sure that the ELL understands what he or she is supposed to do. It will be even more helpful if the peer partner knows the ELL’s first language.
Post a visual daily schedule
Even if ELLs do not yet understand all of the words that you speak, it is possible for them to understand the structure of each day. Whether through chalkboard art or images on Velcro, you can post the daily schedule each morning. By writing down times and having pictures next to words like lunch, wash hands, math, and field trip, ELLs can have a general sense of the upcoming day.
Use an interpreter
On-site interpreters can be very helpful in smoothing out misunderstandings that arise due to communication problems and cultural differences. If an on-site interpreter (a paid or volunteer school staff position) is not available, try to find an adult - perhaps another parent who is familiar with the school or “knows the system” – who is willing to serve this purpose. In difficult situations, it would not be appropriate for another child to translate.
ELLs can make unintentional “mistakes” as they are trying hard to adjust to a new cultural setting. They are constantly transferring what they know as acceptable behaviors from their own culture to the U.S. classroom and school. Be patient as ELLs learn English and adjust.
Invite their culture into the classroom
Encourage ELLs to share their language and culture with you and your class. Show-and-tell is a good opportunity for ELLs to bring in something representative of their culture, if they wish. They could also tell a popular story or folktale using words, pictures, gestures, and movements. ELLs could also try to teach the class some words from their native language.
Use materials related to your ELLs’ cultures
Children respond when they see books, topics, characters, and images that are familiar. Try to achieve a good balance of books and materials that include different cultures. Browse these bilingual books from our sister site Colorín Colorado.
Label classroom objects in both languages
Labeling classroom objects will allow ELLs to better understand their immediate surroundings. These labels will also assist you when explaining or giving directions. Start with everyday items, such as “door/puerta,” “book/libro,” and “chair/silla.”
Include ELLs in a non-threatening manner
Some ELLs may be apprehensive about speaking out in a group. They might be afraid to make mistakes in front of their peers. Their silence could also be a sign of respect for you as an authority — and not a sign of their inability or refusal to participate. Find ways to involve ELLs in a non-threatening manner, such as through Total Physical Response activities and cooperative learning projects.
Involve ELLs in cooperative learning
Some ELLs are used to working cooperatively on assigned tasks. What may look like cheating to you is actually a culturally acquired learning style — an attempt to mimic, see, or model what has to be done. Use this cultural trait as a plus in your classroom. Assign buddies or peer tutors so that ELLs are able to participate in all class activities. Also, check out these cooperative learning strategies you can use with ELLs.
Help your ELLs follow established rules
All students need to understand and follow your classroom rules from the very beginning, and ELLs are no exception. Teach them your classroom management rules as soon as possible to avoid misunderstandings, discipline problems, and feelings of low self-esteem. Here are a few strategies that you can use in class:
- Use visuals like pictures, symbols, and reward systems to communicate your expectations in a positive and direct manner.
- Physically model language to ELLs in classroom routines and instructional activities. ELLs will need to see you or their peers model behavior when you want them to sit down, walk to the bulletin board, work with a partner, copy a word, etc.
- Be consistent and fair with all students. Once ELLs clearly understand what is expected, hold them equally accountable for their behavior.
Related resources from Colorín Colorado
Visit Colorín Colorado to Learn More!
The content on this page was created by our sister project, Colorín Colorado , a bilingual site for educators and families of English language learners. Here you’ll find a wealth of in-depth articles, parent tip sheets, classroom video, and many more free resources to help ELLs thrive in school. Dig deeper into How to Create a Welcoming Classroom Environment for ELLs