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Research Report

Informing Writing: The Benefits of Formative Assessment

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This report examines the effectiveness of formative writing assessment and answers two questions: (1) does formative assessment enhance student writing, and (2) how can teachers improve formative writing assessments in the classroom. Writing is a critical literacy component for the achievement of the Common Core State Standards and college and career readiness. Based on the findings of a meta-analysis, authors of this report Steve Graham, Karen Harris, and Michael Hebert provide three recommendations for all schools, including those receiving School Improvement Grants (SIG), and describe examples of classroom application


Graham, S., Harris, K., and Hebert, M. Informing writing: the benefits of formative assessment (2011). Vanderbilt University and the Carnegie Corporation of New York.