Guides from Other Organizations

We've collected many of our favorite guides, published by organizations devoted to early literacy, teaching reading and writing, reading interventions, dyslexia, and other literacy topics. Guides written especially for families can be found in the Parent Engagement section below.

About Reading

Science of Reading Defining Guide

Science of Reading: Defining Guide

This eBook from The Reading League provides a firm definition of what the science of reading is, what it is not, and how all stakeholders can understand its potential to transform reading instruction.

Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do

Teaching Reading Is Rocket Science: What Expert Teachers of Reading Should Know and Be Able to Do

This 2020 update to the 1999 foundational report reviews the reading research and describes the knowledge base that is essential for teacher candidates and practicing teachers to master if they are to be successful in teaching all children to read well. (Louisa Moats, American Federation of Teachers)

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

The Joy and Power of Reading

The Joy and Power of Reading

This summary of research and expert opinion highlights the importance of reading volume (how much reading), access and exposure to print materials and books, reader choice and variety, and reading aloud to developing young readers. (Scholastic)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Afterschool & Community Programs

Accelerating Achievement Through Summer Learning

Accelerating Achievement Through Summer Learning

This resource is for program providers, education leaders, policymakers, and funders who are making important decisions about whether and how to strengthen and expand summer learning programs as a way to accelerate student achievement. In addition to 13 case studies of diverse program models, the report includes a look at key research on what works in summer learning and an overview of supportive state policies. (National Summer Learning Association)

Assessment

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

A collection of research-based screening tools for children under the age of five years old. Practitioners in early care and education, primary health care, and other systems can use this reference to learn cost, administration time, training required, and age range covered for each screening tool. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making

This guide offers five recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor students' academic progress and evaluate instructional practices. The guide recommends that schools set a clear vision for schoolwide data use, develop a data-driven culture, and make data part of an ongoing cycle of instructional improvement. The guide also recommends teaching students how to use their own data to set learning goals. (What Works Clearnghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

A Comprehensive K-3 Reading Assessment Plan: Guidance for School Leaders

A Comprehensive K-3 Reading Assessment Plan: Guidance for School Leaders

This guide provides valuable information for school leaders as they develop a comprehensive assessment plan as a critical element for preventing reading difficulties. The general principles outlined in this document, such as the early identification of students who are struggling in learning to read, are all based on scientific findings, but the detailed recommendations for implementation come from practical experiences in helping many school leaders implement successful plans. The detailed recommendations for implementation come from practical experiences in helping many school leaders implement successful plans. (Center on Instruction)

Children's Books

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Both public and school libraries are community centers at heart, with the same goal: to provide a safe, welcoming environment for all patrons and access to information in a variety of formats. When public and school librarians and library workers engage in collaboration, community members reap the benefits. This toolkit includes context and suggestions for creating partnerships of all sizes. (AASL, ALSC, and YALSA)

The Joy and Power of Reading

The Joy and Power of Reading

This summary of research and expert opinion highlights the importance of reading volume (how much reading), access and exposure to print materials and books, reader choice and variety, and reading aloud to developing young readers. (Scholastic)

Common Core

Parents’ Guide to Student Success

Parents’ Guide to Student Success

This guide was developed by teachers, parents, and education experts in response to the Common Core State Standards that more than 45 states have adopted. Created for grades K-8 and high school English, language arts/literacy and mathematics, the guides provide clear, consistent expectations for what students should be learning at each grade in order to be prepared for college and career. (National Parent Teacher Association)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Why Teach Spelling?

Why Teach Spelling?

This resource brings together three documents that support the teaching of spelling in today's schools: a discussion of why spelling matters, a checklist for evaluating a spelling program, and tables of Common Core State Standards that are linked to spelling instruction. Also included is a downloadable checklist for use in evaluating your own spelling program. (Center on Instruction)

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Content Area Literacy

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

This practice guide provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction. Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Curriculum and Instruction

Science of Reading Defining Guide

Science of Reading: Defining Guide

This eBook from The Reading League provides a firm definition of what the science of reading is, what it is not, and how all stakeholders can understand its potential to transform reading instruction.

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Successful literacy instruction and interventions provide a strong core of highly explicit, systematic teaching of foundation skills such as decoding and spelling skills, as well as explicit teaching of other important components of literacy such as vocabulary, comprehension, and writing. This practitioner-friendly publication will help educators and others better understand the definition, characteristics, and purpose of the term and its affiliated principles and practices. (International Dyslexia Association)

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Early Literacy Interventions

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Early Literacy Interventions

A tool to help district and school-based practitioners conduct self-studies for planning and implementing early literacy interventions for kindergarten, grade1 and grade 2 students. This guide is designed to promote reflection about current strengths and challenges in planning for implementation of early literacy interventions, spark conversations among staff, and identify areas for improvement. This self-study guide provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion. (REL Southwest, U.S. Department of Education)

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Literacy Interventions in Grades 3-8

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Literacy Interventions in Grades 3-8

Developed to help district- and school-based practitioners conduct self-studies for planning and implementing literacy interventions. It is intended to promote reflection about current strengths and challenges in planning for implementation of literacy interventions, spark conversations among staff, and identify areas for improvement. This guide provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion that may improve the implementation of literacy interventions. (REL Southeast, U.S. Department of Education)

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

This practice guide provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction. Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Why Teach Spelling?

Why Teach Spelling?

This resource brings together three documents that support the teaching of spelling in today's schools: a discussion of why spelling matters, a checklist for evaluating a spelling program, and tables of Common Core State Standards that are linked to spelling instruction. Also included is a downloadable checklist for use in evaluating your own spelling program. (Center on Instruction)

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Using Instructional Routines to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

Using Instructional Routines to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

This publication helps educators plan differentiated instruction using 72 formatted activities called Instructional Routines, which provide a structure for teaching specific foundational reading skills. (Center on Instruction at RMC)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Students who read with understanding at an early age gain access to a broader range of texts, knowledge, and educational opportunities, making early reading comprehension instruction particularly critical. This guide recommends five specific steps that teachers, reading coaches, and principals can take to successfully improve reading comprehension for young readers. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Educator’s Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers

Educator’s Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers

This report published on the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) website provides an extensive review of the research on the outcomes of 27 early childhood programs. Six of the programs produced strong evidence of effectiveness in language, literacy, and/or phonological awareness. All of the effective programs had explicit academic content, a balance of teacher-led and child-initiated activity, and significant training and follow-up support. (Johns Hopkins University School of Education)

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making

Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making

This guide offers five recommendations to help educators effectively use data to monitor students' academic progress and evaluate instructional practices. The guide recommends that schools set a clear vision for schoolwide data use, develop a data-driven culture, and make data part of an ongoing cycle of instructional improvement. The guide also recommends teaching students how to use their own data to set learning goals. (What Works Clearnghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Differentiated Instruction

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Using Instructional Routines to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

Using Instructional Routines to Differentiate Instruction: A Guide for Teachers

This publication helps educators plan differentiated instruction using 72 formatted activities called Instructional Routines, which provide a structure for teaching specific foundational reading skills. (Center on Instruction at RMC)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Dyslexia

IDA Handbook: What Every Family Should Know

IDA Handbook: What Every Family Should Know

This handbook discusses the characteristics of dyslexia and provides information on valid assessments, effective teaching approaches, self-advocacy ideas, and additional resources. The handbook contains information that will be useful throughout a child’s life, from elementary school through college. (International Dyslexia Association)

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Successful literacy instruction and interventions provide a strong core of highly explicit, systematic teaching of foundation skills such as decoding and spelling skills, as well as explicit teaching of other important components of literacy such as vocabulary, comprehension, and writing. This practitioner-friendly publication will help educators and others better understand the definition, characteristics, and purpose of the term and its affiliated principles and practices. (International Dyslexia Association)

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

The Dyslexia Toolkit

The Dyslexia Toolkit

This guide for parents provides basic information about dyslexia, common warning signs, and information on how to support your child with dyslexia at home and at school, using audio books and digital books, and accommodating students with dyslexia. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

IDEA Parent Guide

IDEA Parent Guide

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the key federal education law that serves students with learning disabilities. Being informed will help you support your child’s learning needs and advocate for his or her success. This guide takes you through the special education process — a process that is the same regardless of your child’s particular difficulties or disabilities. Special emphasis is placed on the category of Specific Learning Disability (which includes dyslexia) — one of the 13 disability categories defined by IDEA. Throughout this guide you will find personal stories that relate the experiences of parents like you, terms to know, and practical tools such as checklists, sample letters, and questions to ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Early Literacy Development

A Kindergarten Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills

A Kindergarten Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills

This practice guide provides you with information on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. Learning to read begins at home through everyday parent–child interactions, long before children attend school. Parents’ continuing support of literacy development throughout elementary school positively affects their children's reading ability. This guide is geared towards kindergarten teachers and is a companion to the practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (REL Southeast, U.S. Department of Education)

How to Bring Early Learning and Family Engagement into the Digital Age

How to Bring Early Learning and Family Engagement into the Digital Age

This guide helps city and community leaders and other policymakers examine what is needed and update their family engagement and early learning plans by taking integrated approaches to the use of libraries, schools, multimedia spaces, and through home-based Internet connectivity services. (New America and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop)

School Readiness: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

School Readiness: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

This guide focuses on three key school readiness areas: social-emotional and executive function skills (enabling children to plan, focus attention, remember instructions and juggle several tasks), early literacy, and the health determinants of early school success. To help parents strengthen three competencies, the guide includes these recommendations: engage in nurturing and affirming “back and forth” interactions; enrich their child’s vocabulary and promote a love of reading; and track and assess progress toward early developmental milestones. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

A collection of research-based screening tools for children under the age of five years old. Practitioners in early care and education, primary health care, and other systems can use this reference to learn cost, administration time, training required, and age range covered for each screening tool. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Parents are a child's first and most important teacher. This series of booklets gives parents easy-to-adapt ideas on how to help their young child get ready to read. Each booklet includes a story that models effective ways to introduce books and reading to a young child, suggested activities, and a checklist to guide parents as they think about their child’s reading skills. (National Institute for Literacy)

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

This 12-page booklet for parents and caregivers describes key skill areas children need to develop to become lifelong enthusiastic learners and what adults can do to support that development. (Zero to Three)

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

Researchers have found that children begin to learn reading and writing at home, long before they go to school. This booklet for parents summarizes the most important research findings, defines important terms, and lists reading skills that kids at different ages are developing. (National Institute for Literacy)

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

This guide draws from research to provide practical tips to strengthen children’s language abilities, increase their world knowledge, help them become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, and recognize numbers and learn to count. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

English Language Learners

Newcomer Toolkit

Newcomer Toolkit

This tool kit can help U.S. educators and others who work directly with immigrant students — including asylees and refugees — and their families. It is designed to help elementary and secondary teachers, principals, and other school staff strengthen opportunities for cultural and linguistic integration and education; understand the basics about their legal obligations to newcomers; provide welcoming schools and classrooms for students and their families; provide the academic support to attain English language proficiency and to meet college- and career-readiness standards; and support newcomers’ social-emotional skills.

English Learner Tool Kit

English Learner Tool Kit

This 10-chapter toolkit features recommendations on how to implement best practices with ELLs. It includes information on topics such as how to write curriculum, communicate with parents, and serve ELLs with disabilities, as well as updates on research. The toolkit is the companion document to a letter sent to states, which outlines legal obligations to English Learners under civil rights laws. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice)

ELL Starter Kit for Educators

ELL Starter Kit for Educators

Keeping periodic track of the progress English language learners are making in their second language acquisition skills is essential. This starter kit provides helpful forms for PK-12 educators who work with ELLs to find out if they’re on track learning the important academic English skills they need to be successful. (Colorín Colorado and the American Federation of Teachers)

Toolkit for Teachers: Reaching Out to Hispanic Parents of English Language Learners

Toolkit for Teachers: Reaching Out to Hispanic Parents of English Language Learners

This toolkit includes background information on reaching out to Hispanic parents, four sample workshops, videos in Spanish and English, booklists, and bilingual handouts. Additions to the toolkit include a new parent workshop on helping children become successful readers and 200 children's book titles geared towards Latino families. (Colorín Colorado, Reading Rockets, and the American Federation of Teachers)

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

This practice guide provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction. Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades

Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades

The target audience for this guide is a broad spectrum of school practitioners such as administrators, curriculum specialists, coaches, staff development specialists and teachers who face the challenge of providing effective literacy instruction for English language learners in the elementary grades. The guide also aims to reach district-level administrators who develop practice and policy options for their schools. (U.S. Department of Education)

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Fluency

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Intervention and Prevention

Providing Reading Interventions for Students in Grades 4–9

Providing Reading Interventions for Students in Grades 4–9

Recent research has identified strategies that have the potential to improve reading among students in grades 4–9 with reading difficulties. Research is distilled into practical recommendations educators can use when providing reading interventions. This guide details four evidence-based practices designed to be used by special educators, general education teachers, reading specialists and coaches, administrators, and parents. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Early Literacy Interventions

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Early Literacy Interventions

A tool to help district and school-based practitioners conduct self-studies for planning and implementing early literacy interventions for kindergarten, grade1 and grade 2 students. This guide is designed to promote reflection about current strengths and challenges in planning for implementation of early literacy interventions, spark conversations among staff, and identify areas for improvement. This self-study guide provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion. (REL Southwest, U.S. Department of Education)

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Literacy Interventions in Grades 3-8

Self-Study Guide for Implementing Literacy Interventions in Grades 3-8

Developed to help district- and school-based practitioners conduct self-studies for planning and implementing literacy interventions. It is intended to promote reflection about current strengths and challenges in planning for implementation of literacy interventions, spark conversations among staff, and identify areas for improvement. This guide provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion that may improve the implementation of literacy interventions. (REL Southeast, U.S. Department of Education)

Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Mathematics

Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Mathematics

This publication provides research-based guidance that reflects best practices for intensifying instruction in reading and mathematics for students with significant learning difficulties in K-12, including students with disabilities. (Center on Instruction)

A Parent's Guide to Response to Intervention (RTI)

A Parent’s Guide to Response to Intervention (RTI)

This guide for parents provides basic information about Response to Intervention (RTI), an example of the three-tier model, progress monitoring, RTI and special education evaluation and eligibility, RTI in action, and questions parents should ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Teachers and reading specialists can utilize these strategies to implement RtI and multi-tier intervention methods and frameworks at the classroom or school level. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Extensive Reading Interventions in Grades K-3

Extensive Reading Interventions in Grades K-3

This synthesis of research on K-3 reading interventions presents findings from 12 studies that focused on students with reading difficulties who received supplementary reading interventions for at least 100 sessions. The summaries of the studies are followed by suggested implications for practice. (Center on Instruction)

Learning Disabilities

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Structured Literacy: An Introductory Guide

Successful literacy instruction and interventions provide a strong core of highly explicit, systematic teaching of foundation skills such as decoding and spelling skills, as well as explicit teaching of other important components of literacy such as vocabulary, comprehension, and writing. This practitioner-friendly publication will help educators and others better understand the definition, characteristics, and purpose of the term and its affiliated principles and practices. (International Dyslexia Association)

IDA Handbook: What Every Family Should Know

IDA Handbook: What Every Family Should Know

This handbook discusses the characteristics of dyslexia and provides information on valid assessments, effective teaching approaches, self-advocacy ideas, and additional resources. The handbook contains information that will be useful throughout a child’s life, from elementary school through college. (International Dyslexia Association)

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Mathematics

Intensive Interventions for Students Struggling in Reading and Mathematics

This publication provides research-based guidance that reflects best practices for intensifying instruction in reading and mathematics for students with significant learning difficulties in K-12, including students with disabilities. (Center on Instruction)

The Dyslexia Toolkit

The Dyslexia Toolkit

This guide for parents provides basic information about dyslexia, common warning signs, and information on how to support your child with dyslexia at home and at school, using audio books and digital books, and accommodating students with dyslexia. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

IDEA Parent Guide

IDEA Parent Guide

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the key federal education law that serves students with learning disabilities. Being informed will help you support your child’s learning needs and advocate for his or her success. This guide takes you through the special education process — a process that is the same regardless of your child’s particular difficulties or disabilities. Special emphasis is placed on the category of Specific Learning Disability (which includes dyslexia) — one of the 13 disability categories defined by IDEA. Throughout this guide you will find personal stories that relate the experiences of parents like you, terms to know, and practical tools such as checklists, sample letters, and questions to ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Libraries

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Both public and school libraries are community centers at heart, with the same goal: to provide a safe, welcoming environment for all patrons and access to information in a variety of formats. When public and school librarians and library workers engage in collaboration, community members reap the benefits. This toolkit includes context and suggestions for creating partnerships of all sizes. (AASL, ALSC, and YALSA)

Developmental Milestones

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

A collection of research-based screening tools for children under the age of five years old. Practitioners in early care and education, primary health care, and other systems can use this reference to learn cost, administration time, training required, and age range covered for each screening tool. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Milestone Moments: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

Milestone Moments: Learn the Signs. Act Early.

This booklet provides parents with a checklist of key cognitive and physical milestones from 6 months to 4 years, ways to help your child learn and grow, and what to do if you're concerned about a developmental delay. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

This 12-page booklet for parents and caregivers describes key skill areas children need to develop to become lifelong enthusiastic learners and what adults can do to support that development. (Zero to Three)

Motivation

The Joy and Power of Reading

The Joy and Power of Reading

This summary of research and expert opinion highlights the importance of reading volume (how much reading), access and exposure to print materials and books, reader choice and variety, and reading aloud to developing young readers. (Scholastic)

Encouraging Your Child to Read

Encouraging Your Child to Read

This booklet outlines the reading and language skills that children develop at different ages and suggests activities to help develop these skills — activities that every family can try and that are fun for both caregivers and children. (Harvard Graduate School of Education)

Oral Language

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

This guide draws from research to provide practical tips to strengthen children’s language abilities, increase their world knowledge, help them become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, and recognize numbers and learn to count. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Parent Engagement

A Kindergarten Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills

A Kindergarten Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills

This practice guide provides you with information on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. Learning to read begins at home through everyday parent–child interactions, long before children attend school. Parents’ continuing support of literacy development throughout elementary school positively affects their children's reading ability. This guide is geared towards kindergarten teachers and is a companion to the practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (REL Southeast, U.S. Department of Education)

School Readiness: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

School Readiness: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

This guide focuses on three key school readiness areas: social-emotional and executive function skills (enabling children to plan, focus attention, remember instructions and juggle several tasks), early literacy, and the health determinants of early school success. To help parents strengthen three competencies, the guide includes these recommendations: engage in nurturing and affirming “back and forth” interactions; enrich their child’s vocabulary and promote a love of reading; and track and assess progress toward early developmental milestones. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Attendance: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Attendance: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Research shows that children who are chronically absent from school — missing 10 percent of the school year or more (about 18 days) for any reason — in kindergarten and first grade are far less likely to read well by the end of third grade. To make progress on attendance, the guide recommends that communities focus on helping parents strengthen these competencies: recognize and address health needs and environmental hazards in the home; monitor absences and seek support at the earliest signs of attendance issues; and establish an expectation and a plan for daily school attendance, even when families move. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Summer: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Summer: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Any effort to increase third-grade reading proficiency should maximize the summer months as a time to catch up, stay on track, and remain healthy. Equipped with the right information, tools, and supports, parents can make sure their children have healthy and enriching summers. The guide includes these recommendations to support summer learning: engage children in enriching summer activities at home or in the community; use technology to facilitate ongoing learning, especially during the summer; and encourage, support, and model healthy eating and fitness. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Toolkit for Teachers: Reaching Out to Hispanic Parents of English Language Learners

Toolkit for Teachers: Reaching Out to Hispanic Parents of English Language Learners

This toolkit includes background information on reaching out to Hispanic parents, four sample workshops, videos in Spanish and English, booklists, and bilingual handouts. Additions to the toolkit include a new parent workshop on helping children become successful readers and 200 children's book titles geared towards Latino families. (Colorín Colorado, Reading Rockets, and the American Federation of Teachers)

Bringing Attendance Home: Engaging Parents in Preventing Chronic Absence

Bringing Attendance Home: Engaging Parents in Preventing Chronic Absence

Created with the help of practitioners who have worked successfully with families to improve attendance, this toolkit is filled with ideas, activities and materials that you can use to spark conversations with parents about how good attendance can help them fulfill their dreams and aspirations for their children’s futures. (Attendance Works)

Parents’ Guide to Student Success

Parents’ Guide to Student Success

This guide was developed by teachers, parents, and education experts in response to the Common Core State Standards that more than 45 states have adopted. Created for grades K-8 and high school English, language arts/literacy and mathematics, the guides provide clear, consistent expectations for what students should be learning at each grade in order to be prepared for college and career. (National Parent Teacher Association)

A Parent's Guide to Response to Intervention (RTI)

A Parent’s Guide to Response to Intervention (RTI)

This guide for parents provides basic information about Response to Intervention (RTI), an example of the three-tier model, progress monitoring, RTI and special education evaluation and eligibility, RTI in action, and questions parents should ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Home-to-School Connections Guide

Home-to-School Connections Guide

This classroom resource guide highlights solutions for connecting home and school in order to improve student learning and success. Whether you're a teacher, parent, or district administrator, this guide provides you with relevant and valuable tools and resources for how best to strengthen the bonds between schools, families, and communities for student learning and success. (Edutopia)

Parent-Teacher Conference Tip Sheets for Principals, Teachers and Parents

Parent–Teacher Conference Tip Sheets for Principals, Teachers and Parents

Parent–teacher conferences are an important component of ongoing home–school communication and family involvement in children’s education. These three tip sheets — for principals, teachers, and parents — can help ensure that parent–teacher conferences achieve their maximum potential by providing guidance that reflects each person’s role and responsibility in promoting productive home–school communication. Designed to be used as a set, the tip sheets combine consistent information with targeted suggestions, so that parents and educators enter into conferences with shared expectations and an increased ability to work together to improve children’s educational outcomes. (Harvard Family Research Project)

Dad’s Playbook: Coaching Kids to Read

Dad’s Playbook: Coaching Kids to Read

By taking the time to read with their children, fathers can play an important role in helping children learn to read. Dad’s Playbook tells the stories of 20 dads from different walks of life who are giving their kids the best shot at a bright future by helping them learn to read. This publication also teaches dads about the five skills children need to be readers by third grade and helps them incorporate reading into everyday activities. (National Institute for Literacy,)

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Parents are a child's first and most important teacher. This series of booklets gives parents easy-to-adapt ideas on how to help their young child get ready to read. Each booklet includes a story that models effective ways to introduce books and reading to a young child, suggested activities, and a checklist to guide parents as they think about their child’s reading skills. (National Institute for Literacy)

A Child Becomes a Reader II: Kindergarten through Grade Three

A Child Becomes a Reader: Kindergarten through Grade Three

This booklet offers advice for parents of children from grades K-3 on how to support reading development at home and how to recognize effective instruction in their children’s classrooms. (National Institute for Literacy)

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

Getting Ready for School Begins at Birth

This 12-page booklet for parents and caregivers describes key skill areas children need to develop to become lifelong enthusiastic learners and what adults can do to support that development. (Zero to Three)

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

Researchers have found that children begin to learn reading and writing at home, long before they go to school. This booklet for parents summarizes the most important research findings, defines important terms, and lists reading skills that kids at different ages are developing. (National Institute for Literacy)

Encouraging Your Child to Read

Encouraging Your Child to Read

This booklet outlines the reading and language skills that children develop at different ages and suggests activities to help develop these skills — activities that every family can try and that are fun for both caregivers and children. (Harvard Graduate School of Education)

Phonemic Awareness

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Phonics and Decoding

Meeting the Challenges of Early Literacy Phonics Instruction

Meeting the Challenges of Early Literacy Phonics Instruction

“Learning to read can, at times, seem almost magical,” Blevins begins this brief on phonics instruction. “But it’s not magical.” In this brief, the author provides a clear description of what phonics is and why it matters. Although phonics can be taught in different ways, research supports instruction that is explicit and systematic. In addition to being explicit and systematic, strong phonics instruction has the following seven key characteristics: readiness skills, scope and sequence, blending, dictation, word awareness, high-frequency words, and reading connected text. (International Literary Association)

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Policy, Politics, Statistics

How to Bring Early Learning and Family Engagement into the Digital Age

How to Bring Early Learning and Family Engagement into the Digital Age

This guide helps city and community leaders and other policymakers examine what is needed and update their family engagement and early learning plans by taking integrated approaches to the use of libraries, schools, multimedia spaces, and through home-based Internet connectivity services. (New America and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop)

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

English Learner Tool Kit

English Learner Tool Kit

This 10-chapter toolkit features recommendations on how to implement best practices with ELLs. It includes information on topics such as how to write curriculum, communicate with parents, and serve ELLs with disabilities, as well as updates on research. The toolkit is the companion document to a letter sent to states, which outlines legal obligations to English Learners under civil rights laws. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Justice)

Preschool and Child Care

Pre-K teacher at table showing students how to match colors and shapes

Preparing Young Children for School

This practice guide, developed in conjunction with an expert panel, distills contemporary early childhood and preschool education research into seven easily comprehensible and practical recommendations. The guidance will help to prepare young children to benefit from the learning opportunities they will encounter in school. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

Compendium of Screening Measures for Young Children

A collection of research-based screening tools for children under the age of five years old. Practitioners in early care and education, primary health care, and other systems can use this reference to learn cost, administration time, training required, and age range covered for each screening tool. (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

A Child Becomes a Reader: Birth to Preschool

Researchers have found that children begin to learn reading and writing at home, long before they go to school. This booklet for parents summarizes the most important research findings, defines important terms, and lists reading skills that kids at different ages are developing. (National Institute for Literacy)

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

This guide draws from research to provide practical tips to strengthen children’s language abilities, increase their world knowledge, help them become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, and recognize numbers and learn to count. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Print Awareness

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Professional Development

Science of Reading Defining Guide

Science of Reading: Defining Guide

This eBook from The Reading League provides a firm definition of what the science of reading is, what it is not, and how all stakeholders can understand its potential to transform reading instruction.

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

Reading Aloud

The Joy and Power of Reading

The Joy and Power of Reading

This summary of research and expert opinion highlights the importance of reading volume (how much reading), access and exposure to print materials and books, reader choice and variety, and reading aloud to developing young readers. (Scholastic)

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Shining Stars: Get Ready to Read

Parents are a child's first and most important teacher. This series of booklets gives parents easy-to-adapt ideas on how to help their young child get ready to read. Each booklet includes a story that models effective ways to introduce books and reading to a young child, suggested activities, and a checklist to guide parents as they think about their child’s reading skills. (National Institute for Literacy)

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

Helping Your Child Become a Reader

This booklet (in English and Spanish) features dozens of fun activities parents can use to build the language skills of young children from birth to age 6. It has a reading checklist, typical language accomplishments for different age groups, and resources for children with reading problems or learning disabilities. (U.S. Department of Education)

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

Teaching Our Youngest: A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child Care and Family Providers

This guide draws from research to provide practical tips to strengthen children’s language abilities, increase their world knowledge, help them become familiar with books and other printed materials, learn letters and sounds, and recognize numbers and learn to count. (U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Reading Comprehension

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Students who read with understanding at an early age gain access to a broader range of texts, knowledge, and educational opportunities, making early reading comprehension instruction particularly critical. This guide recommends five specific steps that teachers, reading coaches, and principals can take to successfully improve reading comprehension for young readers. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

The National Reading Panel Report: Practical Advice for Teachers

The National Reading Panel Report: Practical Advice for Teachers

Research has shown that students can be taught to comprehend the material better while they are reading. Successful instruction of this type has usually focused on the teaching of comprehension strategies — that is, intentional actions students can use during reading to guide their thinking. Such strategies improve both understanding and memory. Some strategies that have been successfully taught include summarization, questioning, story maps, comprehension monitoring, and graphic organizers; however, the teaching of the combined use of multiple strategies has been most effective in improving reading. Strategy teaching is most effective when it takes a gradual release-of-responsibility approach in which the teacher models the strategy use (“I do it”), guides students to use it successfully within reading (“We do it”), and then assigns independent practice with the strategy (“You do it”). Reading comprehension instruction needs to take place in both narrative and expository text. (Timothy Shanahan, Learning Point Associates/North Central Regional Educational Laboratory)

Response to Intervention

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RtI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades

This guide offers five specific recommendations to help educators identify struggling readers and implement evidence-based strategies to promote their reading achievement. Teachers and reading specialists can utilize these strategies to implement RtI and multi-tier intervention methods and frameworks at the classroom or school level. Recommendations cover how to screen students for reading problems, design a multi-tier intervention program, adjust instruction to help struggling readers, and monitor student progress. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

School-Wide Efforts

Science of Reading Defining Guide

Science of Reading: Defining Guide

This eBook from The Reading League provides a firm definition of what the science of reading is, what it is not, and how all stakeholders can understand its potential to transform reading instruction.

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Public Library and School Library Collaboration Toolkit

Both public and school libraries are community centers at heart, with the same goal: to provide a safe, welcoming environment for all patrons and access to information in a variety of formats. When public and school librarians and library workers engage in collaboration, community members reap the benefits. This toolkit includes context and suggestions for creating partnerships of all sizes. (AASL, ALSC, and YALSA)

Attendance: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Attendance: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Research shows that children who are chronically absent from school — missing 10 percent of the school year or more (about 18 days) for any reason — in kindergarten and first grade are far less likely to read well by the end of third grade. To make progress on attendance, the guide recommends that communities focus on helping parents strengthen these competencies: recognize and address health needs and environmental hazards in the home; monitor absences and seek support at the earliest signs of attendance issues; and establish an expectation and a plan for daily school attendance, even when families move. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Supporting Student Success Through Time and Technology

Supporting Student Success Through Time and Technology

With this step-by-step guide, learn how to successfully implement blended learning and expanded learning time at your school. The first part of the guide profiles six expanded learning time schools across the country that have implemented blended learning for various purposes, in various ways, and with varying degrees of success. The second part of the guide offers a seven-step roadmap for planning and implementation, based on the experiences of the six schools profiled in part 1, along with insights from blended learning and expanded learning time experts. (National Center for Time and Learning)

Leading Pre-K-3 Learning Communities: Competencies for Effective Principal Practice

Leading Pre-K-3 Learning Communities: Competencies for Effective Principal Practice

This guide describes the skills that principals leading schools serving children from age 3 to age 8 — typically Pre-K to grade 3 — must have to ensure the academic, social, emotional and physical well-being and success of all young children. It represents a new vision for school leadership from a child-centered focus by applying the latest research and knowledge on child development and early childhood education to set expectations for effective principal practice. (National Association of Elementary School Principals)

Bringing Attendance Home: Engaging Parents in Preventing Chronic Absence

Bringing Attendance Home: Engaging Parents in Preventing Chronic Absence

Created with the help of practitioners who have worked successfully with families to improve attendance, this toolkit is filled with ideas, activities and materials that you can use to spark conversations with parents about how good attendance can help them fulfill their dreams and aspirations for their children’s futures. (Attendance Works)

Teaching Attendance: Everyday Strategies to Help Teachers Improve Attendance and Raise Achievement

Teaching Attendance: Everyday Strategies to Help Teachers Improve Attendance and Raise Achievement

This teacher toolkit is designed to help teachers build a culture of attendance in the school and community, and maintain it throughout the school year. (Attendance Works)

Special Education

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

IDEA Parent Guide

IDEA Parent Guide

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the key federal education law that serves students with learning disabilities. Being informed will help you support your child’s learning needs and advocate for his or her success. This guide takes you through the special education process — a process that is the same regardless of your child’s particular difficulties or disabilities. Special emphasis is placed on the category of Specific Learning Disability (which includes dyslexia) — one of the 13 disability categories defined by IDEA. Throughout this guide you will find personal stories that relate the experiences of parents like you, terms to know, and practical tools such as checklists, sample letters, and questions to ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Spelling and Word Study

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade

This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendation also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills, and is a companion to the practice guide, Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Why Teach Spelling?

Why Teach Spelling?

This resource brings together three documents that support the teaching of spelling in today's schools: a discussion of why spelling matters, a checklist for evaluating a spelling program, and tables of Common Core State Standards that are linked to spelling instruction. Also included is a downloadable checklist for use in evaluating your own spelling program. (Center on Instruction)

STEM Literacy

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School

This practice guide provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction. Each recommendation includes extensive examples of activities that can be used to support students as they build the language and literacy skills needed to be successful in school. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

Struggling Readers

Building the Foundation: Foundational Skills in the Common Core

Building the Foundation: A Suggested Progression of Sub-skills to Achieve the Reading Standards: Foundational Skills in the Common Core State Standards

In this guide, each section targets one grade level in print concepts, phonological awareness, phonics and word recognition, and fluency. It also includes instructional examples aligned to the sub-skills and instruction for students who are either struggling and need extra support or intervention, or for students performing above grade-level expectations and require enrichment. (Center on Instruction)

Educator’s Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers

Educator’s Guide: Identifying What Works for Struggling Readers

This report published on the Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) website provides an extensive review of the research on the outcomes of 27 early childhood programs. Six of the programs produced strong evidence of effectiveness in language, literacy, and/or phonological awareness. All of the effective programs had explicit academic content, a balance of teacher-led and child-initiated activity, and significant training and follow-up support. (Johns Hopkins University School of Education)

IDEA Parent Guide

IDEA Parent Guide

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the key federal education law that serves students with learning disabilities. Being informed will help you support your child’s learning needs and advocate for his or her success. This guide takes you through the special education process — a process that is the same regardless of your child’s particular difficulties or disabilities. Special emphasis is placed on the category of Specific Learning Disability (which includes dyslexia) — one of the 13 disability categories defined by IDEA. Throughout this guide you will find personal stories that relate the experiences of parents like you, terms to know, and practical tools such as checklists, sample letters, and questions to ask. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Summer Reading

Accelerating Achievement Through Summer Learning

Accelerating Achievement Through Summer Learning

This resource is for program providers, education leaders, policymakers, and funders who are making important decisions about whether and how to strengthen and expand summer learning programs as a way to accelerate student achievement. In addition to 13 case studies of diverse program models, the report includes a look at key research on what works in summer learning and an overview of supportive state policies. (National Summer Learning Association)

Summer: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Summer: Supporting Parent Success Resource Guide

Any effort to increase third-grade reading proficiency should maximize the summer months as a time to catch up, stay on track, and remain healthy. Equipped with the right information, tools, and supports, parents can make sure their children have healthy and enriching summers. The guide includes these recommendations to support summer learning: engage children in enriching summer activities at home or in the community; use technology to facilitate ongoing learning, especially during the summer; and encourage, support, and model healthy eating and fitness. (The Campaign for Grade Level Reading)

Teacher Education

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

Knowledge and Practice Standards for Teaching of Reading

These standards provide an evidence-based framework for course content in teacher training programs and instructional reading programs. Written for general educators and specialists, the standards address the needs of all students – students with dyslexia, students struggling with learning to read, and proficient readers. The standards are not a curriculum; they list critical content knowledge, skills, and abilities — the foundation for good reading instruction. They can also be used to help parents select and advocate for effective teaching methods. (International Dyslexia Association)

Educational Technology & Digital Media

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

Personalized Learning: Policy and Practice Recommendations for Meeting the Needs of Students with Disabilities

This report was developed in conjunction with a national meeting, drawing together students with disabilities and personalized learning experts to discuss how personalized learning systems can be designed to best support the learning of students with disabilities. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)

Vocabulary

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

Student Center Activities Aligned to the Common Core State Standards

This publication helps educators create differentiated reading instruction experiences for their students by showing the relationship between two distinct resources: Student Center Activities (SCA) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Reading specialists, reading coaches, and teachers will find this document useful in lesson planning, as it contains crosswalks that map the relationships between each SCA and a corresponding, grade-specific standard in CCSS. The guide illustrates how SCAs relate to standards in English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects in K–5. (Center on Instruction)

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read

This booklet summarizes what National Reading Panel researchers have discovered about how to teach children to read successfully. The guide lists the main research findings related to phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension and suggests best instructional practices in each area. (National Institute for Literacy)

Writing

Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools

Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High Schools

Along with reading comprehension, writing skill is a predictor of academic success and a basic requirement for participation in civic life and in the global economy. Yet every year in the U.S., large numbers of adolescents graduate from high school unable to write at the basic levels required by colleges and employers. This report discusses 11 specific teaching techniques that research suggests will help improve the writing abilities of students in grades 4-12. (Alliance for Excellent Education)

A Guide to Teaching Nonfiction Writing in Grades K-2

A Guide to Teaching Nonfiction Writing in Grades K-2

The Common Core Standards along with grade-level expectations and standards from most states now call for a strong emphasis on reading and writing nonfiction texts — from the beginning. This means that learners of all ages need to become acquainted with the structures and features of informational texts, both as readers and as writers. This guide offers strategies for using those features to enhance understanding and increase efficiency in seeking and recording information and to communicate ideas. (Heinemann)

Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers

Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers

This practice guide offers educators specific, evidence-based recommendations that address the challenge of teaching writing in elementary school. The guide provides four recommendations: provide daily time for student writing; teach students to use the writing process for a variety of purposes; teach students to become fluent with handwriting, spelling, sentence construction, typing and word processing; and create an engaged community of writers. (What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education)

"You know you’ve read a good book when you turn the last page and feel a little as if you have lost a friend." — Paul Sweeney