Teaching English Language Learners
Research comparing bilingual and non-bilingual approaches has been highly controversial, but most reviewers at least agree that bilingual approaches are no less effective than English-only instruction.
Children who are speakers of languages other than English are typically taught to read in one of two ways. Some are taught in their native language and then transitioned to English at some point after first grade. These bilingual programs also provide English as a second language (ESL) instruction to build students' English skills. The alternative is to teach in English but provide support to help children succeed. Students would typically spend time with an ESL teacher, but would be taught in English from the outset.
The National Academy of Sciences report strongly cautions that more research is needed to identify characteristics of both effective bilingual programs and effective English-only programs.
With that caution in mind, however, available evidence suggests that children ought to be taught how to read in their native language while acquiring oral proficiency in English and then subsequently be taught to extend their skills to reading in English when the proper conditions are in place. These conditions include having a teacher who is fluent and literate in the student's native language and having textual and other material support for instruction in that language. In addition, the literacy level of the home is shown to be a strong influence in the effectiveness of bilingual programs.
In general, principles of effective instruction for bilingual classes are no different from those for monolingual English reading as long as the second language is an alphabetic language.
Principles of effective instruction for non-bilingual programs are also similar to those for monolingual English reading, except that teachers need to make adaptations to make the content comprehensible. For example, many teachers use a technique called total physical response, in which children learn English words by acting them out or by seeing the teacher do so.
ESL teachers should align their activities closely with those of classroom reading teachers, so that they help children with the specific language skills needed for success in the mainstream classroom. ESL teachers themselves often teach the reading class. It is important to avoid a disconnect between ESL and other instruction. The guiding principle should be that the content of ESL and other supplementary services should be driven by whatever children will be held accountable for.
Systematic attention to vocabulary and syntactic development is of critical importance for all English language learners.
Click the "References" link above to hide these references.Trends in Reading Performance
Campbell, J.R., Donahue, P.L., Reese, C.M., & Phillips, G.W. (1996). NAEP 1994 reading report card for the nation and the states. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
National Center for Education Statistics (1997). The condition of education, 1997. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, NCES.Beginning Reading Curriculum and Instruction
Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Summary.
Barr, R., Kamil, M.L., Mosenthal, P., & Pearson, P.D. (Eds.) (1991). Handbook of reading research. New York: Longman.
Hiebert, E.H., & Taylor, B.M. (Eds.) (1995). Getting reading right from the start: Effective early literacy interventions. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Hiebert, E.H., & Raphael, T.E. (1996). Psychological perspectives on literacy and extensions to educational practice. In D.C. Berliner & R.C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology. New York: Macmillan.
Juel, C., & Roper-Schneider, D. (1985). The influence of basal readers on first grade reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 134-152.
Macmillan, B. (1997). Why schoolchildren can't read. Trowbridge, England: Redwood.
National Academy of Sciences (forthcoming). The prevention of reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: Author.
Orton Dyslexia Society (1997). Informed instruction for reading success: Foundations for teacher preparation. Baltimore: Author.
Pearson, P.D. (1996). Six ideas in search of a champion: What policymakers should know about the teaching and learning of literacy in our schools. Journal of Literacy Research, 28 (4), 302-309.Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Programs
Campbell, F.A., & Ramey, C.T. (1995). Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 32, 743-772.
Meisels, S.J., & Shonkoff, J.P. (Eds.) (1990). Handbook of early childhood intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Spodek, B. (Ed.) (1993). Handbook of research in the education of young children. New York: Macmillan.Grouping and Class Size
Egelson, P., Harman, P., & Achilles, C.M. (1996). Does class size make a difference? Greensboro, NC: SERVE.
Slavin, R.E. (1989). School and classroom organization. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Tutoring
Lyons, C.A., Pinnell, G.S., & DeFord, D.E. (1993). Partners in learning: Teachers and Children in Reading Recovery. New York: Teachers College Press.
Wasik, B.A. (1997). Volunteer tutoring programs: Do we know what works? Phi Delta Kappan, 79 (4), 282-287.
Wasik, B.A., & Slavin, R.E. (1993). Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 178-200.English Language Learners
August, D., Hakuta, K. (1997). Improving schooling for language-minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC: National Research Council.Title I/Chapter 1
Puma, M.J., Karweit, N., Price, C., Ricciuti, A., Thompson, W., & Vaden-Kiernan, M. (1997). Prospects: Final report on student outcomes. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.
Stringfield, S., Millsap, M.A., Herman, R., Yoder, N., Brigham, N., Nesselrodt, P., Schaffer, E., Karweit, N., Levin, M., & Stevens, R.J. (1997). Special strategies studies final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Reviews of Effective Programs
Ellis, A.K, & Fouts, J.T. (1993). Research on educational innovations. Princeton Junction, NJ: Eye on Education.
Slavin, R.E., & Fashola, O.S. (1998). Show me the evidence: Proven and promising programs for America's schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
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