# Inference

Observations occur when we can see something happening. In contrast, inferences are what we figure out based on an experience. Helping students understand when information is implied, or not directly stated, will improve their skill in drawing conclusions and making inferences. These skills will be needed for all sorts of school assignments, including reading, science and social studies. Inferential thinking is a complex skill that will develop over time and with experience.

## Why teach inference?

• Inference is a complex skill that can be taught through explicit instruction in inferential strategies
• Inferring requires higher order thinking skills, which makes it a difficult skill for many students.
 How to use: Individually With small groups Whole class setting

## How to teach inference

One simplified model for teaching inference includes the following assumptions:

Marzano (2010) suggests teachers pose four questions to students to facilitate a discussion about inferences.

• What is my inference?
This question helps students become aware that they may have just made an inference by filling in information that wasn't directly presented.
• What information did I use to make this inference?
It's important for students to understand the various types of information they use to make inferences. This may include information presented in the text, or it may be background knowledge that a student brings to the learning setting.
• How good was my thinking?
According to Marzano, once students have identified the premises on which they've based their inferences, they can engage in the most powerful part of the process — examining the validity of their thinking.
• Do I need to change my thinking?
The final step in the process is for students to consider possible changes in their thinking. The point here is not to invalidate students' original inferences, but rather to help them develop the habit of continually updating their thinking as they gather new information.

One model that teachers can use to teach inference is called "It says, I say, and so" developed by Kylene Beers (2003). Click below to see graphic organizer examples from Goldilocks and the Three Bears, as well as the steps to solving a math problem about area and diameter.
See graphic organizer example >

## Examples

### Language Arts

The Question-Answer Relationship strategy helps students understand the different types of questions. By learning that the answers to some questions are "Right There" in the text, that some answers require a reader to "Think and Search," and that some answers can only be answered "On My Own," students recognize that they must first consider the question before developing an answer.

Into the Book has an interactive activity that helps young children learn about inferring. In the interactive, students try to infer meaning in letters from virtual pen pals. They try to answer two questions: "WHERE is your pen pal?" (inferences about location) and "WHO is your pen pal?" (inferences about personality). Students search for clues in the text, then choose from three possible inferences for each clue.
See virtual pen pal interactive >

Riddles are one way to practice inferential thinking skills because successful readers make guesses based on what they read and what they already know. The object of this online riddle game is to infer what is being described by the clues you read.
See riddle game >

BrainPop offers several activities for teaching inference, and they offer resources for teachers and parents.
See inference activities >

Because so many stories contain lessons that the main character learns and grows from, it is important for students to not only recognize these transformations but also understand how the story's events affected the characters. This lesson from ReadWriteThink uses a think-aloud procedure to model how to infer character traits and recognize a character's growth across a text. Students also consider the underlying reasons of why the character changed, supporting their ideas and inferences with evidence from the text.
See lesson plan >

### Math

The Math Standards from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) identify standards for PreK-12 students that include developing and evaluating inferences and predictions that are based on data. For young students, the standards specifically state the following:

• Pre-K–2 Expectations: In pre-K through grade 2, all students should discuss events related to students' experiences as "likely" or "unlikely."
• Grades 3–5 Expectations: In grades 3–5, all students should propose and justify conclusions and predictions that are based on data and design studies to further investigate the conclusions or predictions.

### Science

Science teachers spend time helping students develop their observation skills. Inferring and observing are closely related, but they are not identical. Observation is what one sees, inference is an assumption of what one has seen. Observation can be said to be a factual description, and inference is an explanation to the collected data. It's not a guess. If an observation can be termed as a close watch of the world around you through the senses, then inference can be termed as an interpretation of facts that has been observed.

Teachers can start out providing simple observations:

As you're working to develop these skills, encourage your students to incorporate their scientific vocabulary into their statements. "From what I observe on the grass, I infer that…"

Learn more about how to use inference, and other science process skills, to help students understand our water resources.
More on science process skills >

This strategy guide from Seeds of Science introduces an approach for teaching about how scientists use evidence to make inferences. The guide includes an introductory section about how scientists use evidence to make inferences, a general overview of how to use this strategy with many science texts, and a plan for teaching how scientists gather evidence to make inferences.
See teaching inference strategy guide >

This lesson from ReadWriteThinkuses science to engage students in the process of making inferences. First, students work through a series of activities about making inferences. Then they read a booklet of descriptions of a series of mystery objects that are placed under a microscope. Finally, they look through each microscope and use the formula of schema + text clues = inference to make their own inferences about the identity of each mystery object.
See science lesson plan >

### Social Studies

In this Teacher Guide from the National Portrait Gallery at the Smithsonian, students use clues in a portrait to infer things about George Washington and his life. They work to identify visual clues the artist used, they compare various portraits of George Washington, and discuss the importance of the different portraits as visual records.
See teacher guide >

Often, inferring is introduced to students by using familiar symbols, activities, and environments from which they automatically draw inferences or make predictions (an inference about the future). For example, suppose you are about to begin a unit on the Great Depression. You might have students view a picture of the exterior of a mansion and then of a soup line. Then, through questioning, students focus on details, making inferences about the people who live in both places, their socioeconomic status, the kinds of food they eat, the kinds of activities they pursue.

Parents can help to build these skills at home. For ideas to share with parents, see our Growing Readers tip sheet, Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions (in English and Spanish).
See parent tip sheet >

## Children's books to use with this strategy

Chalk

Wordless book

Join three children who find a magical piece of chalk that begins an exciting series of events to figure out "what next." This might be fun to use in conjunction with Crockett Johnson's Harold & the Purple Crayon (HarperCollins).

Deep in the Forest

Wordless book

A baby bear explores a human abode in this riff on the Goldilocks tale. Readers could infer seasons, feelings, and consequences in this modern classic.

Looking Down

Wordless book

From high above, readers journey from space to earth with a progressively closer view though always looking down. What viewers are seeing changes with each page turn and may yield interesting inference on a number of levels (e.g., what else might one see from space?).

Pancakes for Breakfast

Wordless book

A little old lady goes about finding the ingredients needed to make pancakes. Not only is there potential to infer how she feels when she encounters challenges, there is the possibility of science and math (kitchen chemistry and following a recipe) in this classic.

Wave

Wordless book

A girl spends the day at the beach playing with ever-changing waves. By inferring how the child feels, readers could draw conclusions about the weather, wave action, and other science concepts.

I See Myself

Science, ages 3-6

Brief text and clear illustration combine to present both information and experiments that will encourage "what if" and "what next" discussions that can comfortably and safely combine with activities appropriate for young children.

Science, ages 8-12

The how and why of bubbles make a fascinating exploration and lends itself to experimentation and questions such as: Will a square frame make a bubble of the same shape? Why or why not?)

What Do You Do with a Tail Like This?

Science, ages 8-12

Clear illustrations of tails (and other parts such as noses and mouths) are presented with a question that is answered with a page turn that presents the animal in full along with a brief explanation. This informative book introduces animals and actively encourages young readers to infer what tail (or nose, or …) belongs to whom, as well as its possible uses.

If America Were a Village: A Book about the People of the United States

Social studies, ages 8-12

Numbers about the population of the United States is made manageable for children. What can one infer from these statistics (e.g., from the number of native English speakers vs. other languages, or the amount of resources consumed)? It's possible to use this book as a springboard to mathematical activities as well.

The Little Plant Doctor: A Story about George Washington Carver

Social studies, ages 8-12

The life and times of George Washington Carver is made accessible to younger children in a narration told by a tree that the young George planted. What (and why) might the tree not know about the future scientist? Why was and is GWC's work important? How have things changed for young African Americans?

Nurse, Soldier, Spy: The Story of Sarah Edmonds, A Civil War Hero

Social studies, ages 8-12

This lively picture book biography of a woman who disguised herself as a man during the Civil War introduces a time in U.S. history and a bit of women's history. There are inferential thinking opportunities in either subject. (For example: From Sarah's experiences, what can be inferred about women's status in the 19th century? What can be inferred about the status of slaves when one young enslaved man tells Sarah he can't use cash money?)

## Differentiated instruction

### for second language learners, students of varying reading skill, students with learning disabilities, and for younger learners

• Use graphic organizers like the It says, I say, So one to make the steps from observation to inference more explicit.
• Model the observation to inference process over and over again, using as many real-life examples as possible.
• Recognize that the background knowledge upon which inferences are drawn will be different for each student. Reassure students that answers can be different, but all should be made based on some sort of collected data.

## See the research that supports this strategy

Beers, Kylene. (2003). When kids can't read: What teachers can do. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Gregory, A.E., & Cahill, M. (2010, March). Kindergartners Can Do It, Too! Comprehension Strategies for Early Readers. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 515-520.

Harvey, Stephanie, & Goudvis, Anne. (2000). Strategies that work (pp. 277-281). York, ME: Stenhouse.

Marzono, R. (2010). Teaching inference. Educational Leadership, 67(7), 80-01. Available online at http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr10/vol67/num07/Teaching-Inference.aspx.

Ozgungor, S., & Guthrie, J. T. (2004). Interactions among elaborative interrogation, knowledge, and interest in the process of constructing knowledge from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 437-443.

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