All articles

By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2019)

Learn the critical social communication milestones for babies and toddlers, from 7-24 months of age. These milestones cover five developmental domains — play, language, social interaction, emotional regulation, and self-directed learning.



By: Reading Rockets (2019)

Reading Rockets has packed a "virtual beach bag" of activities for teachers to help families get ready for summer and to launch students to fun, enriching summertime experiences. Educators will find materials to download and distribute as well as ideas and resources to offer to students and parents to help ensure summer learning gain rather than loss.



By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2019)

Early detection and early intervention can have a lifetime impact for children with autism. Learn the 16 early signs of autism that unfold from 9 to 16 months.



By: Rozella Stewart, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2019)

Tasks and activities which learners associate with past success tend to stimulate interest. Success begets success! Here you'll find a few success-oriented strategies that support motivation for students who have autism spectrum disorder.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2019)

Embedding literacy training opportunities with schedule training represents a strategy that may have surprising and positive outcomes for some students with autism. Schedules contain a small set of vocabulary for sight word recognition and offer natural opportunities for repetitive exposure to this core set of words.



By: Cathy Pratt, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2019)

Regardless of the grade level or the area of need, peers have been crucial in helping students with autism spectrum disorder to succeed in typical school and community activities. Here are some suggestions for using peer supports in your school.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2019)

Interviews with 12 adults on the autism spectrum provide insight into their own development of literacy skills, their present habits and challenges, and suggestions for teachers of students with ASD.



By: Amy Moore Gaffney, Kristie Brown Lofland, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Get practical tips on how to use various visual supports can reduce your student’s anxiety, by providing much-needed information about the school environment and routines.



By: Anna Merrill, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Learn about the three psychological theories of ASD — Theory of Mind, Weak Central Cohesion, and executive functioning. Understanding these theories can help families and educators manage challenging behaviors at home and in the classroom.



By: Amy Moore Gaffney, Cathy Pratt, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Find links to examples of curriculum and programs that can be used to teach students on the autism spectrum. Topics include commuication, sensory support, social skills, life skills, literacy, math, science, and social studies.



By: Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Browse this collection of visual supports and other resources to help your students with ASD be successful socially and academically in school. You'll find templates for social rules, classroom rules, emotional support, schedules, and more.



By: Cathy Pratt, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

The transition from one grade to the next can be especially challenging for the student with an autism spectrum disorder. However, these students can more easily make this shift if careful planning and preparation occurs. Get tips for facilitating a smooth transition.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Today’s speech language pathologists (SLPs) play many roles in supporting the development of speech, language, communication, and literacy skills. Their roles often include screening, assessing, advocating, and programming/designing augmentative communication equipment in addition to providing direct intervention with students and indirect roles of consulting, coaching, collaborating, and training educators and families.



By: Cathy Pratt, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Anticipating the beginning of the school year can create anxiety for both family members and for their children on the autism spectrum. Get tips to help you be a proactive and positive advocate for your child.



By: Cathy Pratt, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Learn about factors related to school culture, teaching climate, and school-wide discipline practices that can aid or hinder a student with ASD's educational progress.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Though circle-time may be difficult for students with ASD, with the appropriate modifications and additions to the activities and environment, the experience can be successful for students and staff alike. Get ideas that will help make morning meetings more meaningful to students, and will assist in increasing student success.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Communication impairment is a characteristic of autism spectrum disorder. Learn more about how speech-language pathologists can support teachers, including information about different classroom models (e.g., push-in or pull-out), managing an augmentative communication program, and what a service plan can look like.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Parents can support their child's vocabulary skills through read alouds at home. Find out about Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 vocabulary words and terchniques for informal teaching while you read aloud.



By: Kim Davis, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

The following questions can help you get to know your students with autism and give you insights that go beyond test scores and IEP goals.



By: Beverly Vicker, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Students with ASD can have strengths or challenges in either word recognition and language comprehension that will impact reading comprehension. It is important to assess, monitor, and track the word recognition or decoding skills and language comprehension skills as you evaluate reading comprehension.



By: Susan Moreno, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Learn more about talents and challenges in children with high-functioning autism. Get tips on how to make your classroom welcoming and supportive, including lots of ideas for creating physical and instruictional supports, and how to use specific interests to jumpstart learning adventures with other subjects.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

An organized classroom with defined areas and spaces can help students with autism in anticipating the requirements of a specific setting and to predict what will be happening during the instructional day. Get tips on how to organize your classroom.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

An organized classroom with defined areas and spaces can help students with autism in anticipating what is expected and to predict what will be happening during the instructional day. Get tips on how to create defined learning spaces and reduce distractions in your classroom.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

A visual schedule communicates the sequence of upcoming activities or events through the use of objects, photographs, icons, or words. Find out how to set up visual schedules in your classroom to support your students with ASD.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

A work system is an organizational system that gives students with ASD information about what is expected when they come to the classroom. Find out how to implement a work system in your classroom.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Learn about four strategies for structured teaching to support students with ASD: (1) physical structure, (2) visual schedules, (3) work systems, and (4) visual structure.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Visual structure adds a physical or visual component to tasks to help students with ASD to understand how an activity should be completed. Get ideas on how to implement visual structure in your classroom and support your students' independence.



By: Steve Graham (2018)

Dr. Steve Graham, Professor of Education at Arizona State University, answers questions about effective writing instruction, support for struggling writers, teacher professional development, and more.



By: Bob Cunningham, Common Sense Education (2018)

Just as we differentiate our core content instruction to meet individual student needs, our approach to digital citizenship should take student diversity into account. Get tips and strategies for teaching critical digital citizenship skills to your students with learning and attention issues.



By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2018)

Did you know that a baby’s brain is developing the most rapidly during the first two years of life? These early years offer a critical window of opportunity, like no other time, to launch language early and get a jump start on school success. Learn the milestones that develop from 7 to 24 months.



By: Paula Kluth (2018)

By: Susan Pimentel (2018)

In addition to explicit phonics instruction, teachers need to support students' ability to understand complex text and build background knowledge. Teachers also deserve access to high-quality curriculum materials — a thoughtfully arranged, comprehensive, sequential curriculum that embeds standards, the science of reading, and key instructional shifts.



By: Colorín Colorado (2018)

In this article especially for parents of English language learners, get answers to your questions about parent-teacher conferences and find tips about how you can prepare for the conference, including suggested questions and topics to discuss.



By: Reading Rockets (2018)

In these video interviews, children's authors and illustrators who have learning and attention issues share their personal stories. You'll also hear from many popular children's authors who talk about books that can be engaging for kids who struggle with reading. Get tips on where to find great children's books, including graphic novels, book series, audio books, and more.



By: Deborah K. Reed, Iowa Reading Research Center (2018)

In this overview, learn how to capitalize on the benefits of incorporating different types of technology in literacy instruction (such as electronic books, and reading intervention programs) while minimizing the potential pitfalls.



By: Reading Rockets (2018)

Learning to read is a challenge for many kids, but most can become good readers if they get the right help. Parents have an important job in recognizing when a child is struggling and knowing how to find help. Here are some signs to look for and things to do if you suspect your child is having trouble reading.



By: Common Sense Education, Merve Lapus (2018)

All students need digital citizenship skills to participate fully in their communities and make smart choices online and in life. Here are three ways to make digital citizenship part of how we teach, rather than a thing set apart.



By: Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2018)

Find examples of research-based curriculum and programs that can be used to teach literacy and reading comprehension to students on the autism spectrum.



By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2018)

Young children learn by doing. Discovering what they can do with objects leads to learning to talk and to pretend. Find out what actions with objects children should be learning each month from 9 to 16 months. By 16 months, children should use at least 16 actions with objects.



By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2018)

Research with young children indicates that the development of gestures from 9 to 16 months predicts language ability two years later, which is significant because preschool language skills predict academic success. Find out what gestures children should be learning each month from 9 to 16 months. By 16 months, children should use at least 16 gestures.



By: Common Sense Education (2018)

Browse these Top Picks to discover the best in educational apps and websites that support children with learning and attention issues in these areas: emotional intelligence, social skills, and executive function. You'll also find recommendations for quality assistive technology to support kids who are struggling with reading.



By: Reading Rockets (2018)

It's time to head back to school. And while kids are stuffing their backpacks with new school supplies, we're packing a different sort of bag here at Reading Rockets — one filled with resources to help make one of the most important evening events of the school year really sparkle — back-to-school night.



By: Kausalai (Kay) Wijekumar, Andrea L. Beerwinkle (2018)

Learn how to implement a research-based text structure strategy that infuses text structures at every step of reading comprehension instruction, beginning with the introduction of the lesson, previewing of text, selecting important ideas, writing a main idea, generating inferences, and monitoring comprehension.



By: Jeff Knutson, Common Sense Education (2018)

What are the key traits to look for in a quality edtech product? Here are 12 questions that the education editors at Common Sense Education ask that can help you identify classroom-ready digital tools.



By: Tanner Higgin, Common Sense Education (2018)

Learn about strategies and edtech tools that can help students to reflect on what they did over the summer and then design introductory projects that connect their experiences to the school-year curriculum.



By: Bob Cunningham, Understood (2018)

Talking to your child’s teacher about dyslexia is the best way for her to understand your child’s challenges, strengths and needs. Here are eight tips to help you have productive conversations.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2018)

If your child struggles with writing, it’s important to find new and exciting ways to encourage her to write. Here are some creative strategies to try.



By: Mary Amato (2018)

Learn about the process of writing songs, from brainstorming to writing to rehearsing from children's author and songwriting coach Mary Amato. Listen in to science-themed songs written by first graders, and find out what parents can do at home to encourage songwriting and an ear for the elements of a song.



By: Mary Amato (2018)

Find out why it's a good idea for all kids to keep a diary, and get practical tips on writing and motivation for young writers from children's author and writing coach Mary Amato.



By: Mary Amato (2018)

Discover more than a dozen ideas for encouraging your child to write, including creative and simple ways to get the whole family involved. You'll also find out how WOW stories can help unlock story structure for young writers.



By: Mary Amato (2018)

Find out why it's a good idea for young aspiring writers to keep a journal, and get practical tips on journal writing from children's author and writing coach Mary Amato. She says, don't forget to bring a writing journal everywhere you go!



By: Common Sense Education (2018)

Browse these Top Picks to discover the best in educational apps and websites that support core literacy skills — phonics, fluency, vocabulary, spelling, comprehension, and writing. You'll also find recommendations for quality assistive technology to support kids who are struggling with reading.



By: Understood (2018)

There are many teaching methods that can help struggling readers, including children with dyslexia. Learn about the Orton–Gillingham approach and 10 other other methods to supplement your main classroom instruction.



By: Peg Rosen, Understood (2018)

Orton–Gillingham was the first teaching approach specifically designed to help struggling readers by explicitly teaching the connections between letters and sounds. Many reading programs include Orton–Gillingham ideas, including a “multisensory” approach, which is considered highly effective for teaching students with dyslexia.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2018)

Learn the benefits of getting your child evaluated, who does the evaluation, what happens during an evaluation, what to do with the results, and more. You can also view a video to get an inside look at a dyslexia evaluation.



By: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (2018)

Explore the differences among English learners, as well as dual-language, bilingual, and language-immersion programs, to help you decide what makes the most sense for your student population.



By: Todd Cunningham, Bronwyn Lamond (2018)

Learn how to use the SETT framework to identify a struggling student's learning needs and match that with the most appropriate assistive technology options. A case study is provided.



By: Todd Cunningham, Harrison McNaughtan (2018)

Reading requires strong skills in decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension. Learn about some AT tools that can support students in these three key areas.



By: Todd Cunningham, Harrison McNaughtan (2018)

Learn the basics about text-to-speech, what the research says about how well it supports comprehension, tips on how to get the most out of the technology, and a short list of recommended text-to-speech tools. 



By: Bronwyn Lamond, Todd Cunningham (2018)

Are students who use assistive technology getting an unfair advantage? Will AT fix a student's learning challenges? Here are the top three misconceptions about AT and how it is used in the classroom and at home.



By: Michael Godsey, Common Sense Education (2018)

A teacher shares his success in using podcasts to improve literacy skills in the classroom, in this blog post from Common Sense Education. Learn more about how reading along with a podcast builds confidence and literacy and keeps students engaged.



By: Paula Kluth (2018)

By: Tanner Higgin, Common Sense Education (2018)

For today's students, smartphones are essential tools for processing and documenting the world. A field trip offers the perfect platform to show students how phones can offer extra context to their experiences, not distracting but enhancing. This blog post from Common Sense Education shares three ideas to try: scavenger hunt, guided tour, and re-captioning.



By: Courtneay Kelly, Ed.D. (2018)

If you are planning to purchase a literacy program for instruction, get as much information as you can about a program's benefits and effectiveness. This article provides basic comparative information about a range of commercially available literacy programs.



By: Reading Rockets, Christopher Lee (2018)

In this Q&A with assistive technology expert Dr. Christopher Lee, learn more about using AT to support students with learning disabilities, finding the right AT tools, AT evaluations, self-advocacy, and much more.



By: Reading Rockets, Christopher Lee (2018)

Dr. Christopher Lee is a nationally recognized advocate, author, speaker, and leader in the fields of learning disabilities and adaptive technology. In this Q&A, Dr. Lee shares his personal story.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2018)

In this video, teachers of students with a range of learning needs discuss the ways in which assistive technology can help. (In English and Spanish)



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2018)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, you'll learn about assistive technology tools that support various steps in the writing process.



By: Understood (2018)

Most mobile devices come with assistive technology (AT) that can help with reading, writing and organization. Common built-in AT features include text-to-speech and dictation technology.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2018)

Trying out assistive technology (AT) can help you find the right tool for your child. You may be able to test out devices at your child’s school or there may be an AT lending library near you.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2018)

The IEP team at school decides which assistive technology tools each student needs. Many teams make these decisions using something called the SETT Framework. Learn how the overall process works.



By: Melody Musgrove, Understood (2018)

This Q&A provides a brief overview of the responsibility of public schools to provide and pay for a student's assistive technology under the federal IDEA law and Section 504.



By: Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), Understood (2018)

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is an approach to teaching aimed at meeting the needs of every student in a classroom. It can be helpful for all kids, including kids with learning and attention issues. But UDL takes careful planning by teachers. Here are just a few examples of how UDL can work in a classroom.



By: Understood (2018)

Assistive technology (AT) can be an effective accommodation for children with learning and attention issues. Understanding what AT is and how it works is the first step toward finding the right tools for your child.



By: Understood (2018)

Text-to-speech (TTS) is a type of assistive technology that reads digital text aloud. It’s sometimes called “read aloud” technology. TTS can take words on a computer or other digital device and convert them into audio. TTS is very helpful for kids who struggle with reading, but it can also help kids with writing and editing, and even focusing.



By: Understood (2018)

Assistive technology (AT) can be a powerful way to help children with reading issues, including kids with dyslexia. This guide is an introduction to AT tools for reading and where to find them.



By: Understood (2018)

Assistive technology (AT) can help kids with different types of writing challenges. AT tools can make the physical act of writing easier, as well as help kids who have trouble with spelling and grammar, and with organizing and expressing their thoughts. This guide provides an introduction to AT writing tools and where to find them.



By: Understood (2018)

Dictation is an assistive technology (AT) tool that can help kids who struggle with writing. Kids can use dictation to write with their voices, instead of writing by hand or with a keyboard — helpful for kids with dysgraphia, dyslexia and other learning and attention issues that impact writing. 



By: Tami Mount (2018)

A mother describes the warning signs for dyslexia in her daughter that she didn't see clearly. She also shares the life-changing resources that helped her understand what dyslexia is and how to get her daughter the support she needed to thrive.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2018)

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a way of thinking about teaching and learning that helps give all students an equal opportunity to succeed. This approach offers flexibility in the ways students access material, engage with it and show what they know. Developing lesson plans this way helps all kids, but it may be especially helpful for kids with learning and attention issues.



By: Melissa Stewart (2018)

It’s a great time for children’s nonfiction! In recent years, these books have evolved into five distinct categories. Learn more about the characteristics of traditional nonfiction, browse-able nonfiction, narrative nonfiction, expository literature, and active nonfiction.



By: Paula Kluth (2018)

By: Lydia Breiseth, Rachael Walker, Reading Rockets (2018)

Special literacy events and celebrations can be a great way to get kids excited about books and reading. But for kids who struggle with reading, these kinds of events can challenge their self-confidence. Here are 15 strategies to help you plan a successful, joyful reading event for all kinds of readers and learners.



By: Paula Kluth (2018)

By: International Literacy Association (2018)

This ILA brief explains the basics of phonics for parents, offering guidance on phonics for emerging readers, phonological awareness, word study, approaches to teaching phonics, and teaching English learners.



By: International Dyslexia Association (2018)

Structured Literacy prepares students to decode words in an explicit and systematic manner. This approach not only helps students with dyslexia, but there is substantial evidence that it is effective for all readers. Get the basics on the six elements of Structured Literacy and how each element is taught.



By: Reading Rockets (2018)

Discover what kinds of books are especially popular with children who struggle with reading. The recommended books are based on a Reading Rockets survey of parents and educators of children with learning and attention issues, including dyslexia, ADD/ADHD, and autism spectrum disorder.



By: Paula Kluth (2018)

By: Reading Rockets, Todd Cunningham (2017)

In this Q&A with Dr. Todd Cunningham, you'll learn the basics about assistive technology (AT) and how AT tools can help students with language-based learning disabilities to reach their full potential in the classroom.



By: Mira Kates Rose, Bronwyn Lamond, Todd Cunningham (2017)

If you suspect that your child would benefit from using AT at school, it's  important to discuss your observations, suggestions, and questions with your child's teachers. Make time to speak in person. In this article, you'll find tips for opening the conversation with example conversation starters.



By: Nanci Bell (2017)

Learn some best practices in helping children with language processing issues learn to read in this Q&A with expert Nanci Bell, director of Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes. Find out what works with children who have weaknesses in concept imagery or symbol imagery.



By: Reading Rockets, Understood (2017)

The term “learning and attention issues” covers a wide range of challenges kids may face in school, at home and in the community. It includes all children who are struggling — whether their issues have been formally identified or not. Learning and attention issues are brain-based difficulties, and they often run in families. Find resources that can help kids be successful in school and in life!



By: Erin Bell, Director of Communication, Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes (2017)

To thrive in today's English Language Arts classroom, students need rapid recall of words they know and the ability to capture, learn and remember new terms.



By: Jan Hasbrouck, Gerald Tindal (2017)

View the results of the updated 2017 study on oral reading fluency (ORF) by Jan Hasbrouck and Gerald Tindal, with compiled ORF norms for grades 1-6. You'll also find an analysis of how the 2017 norms differ from the 2006 norms.



By: Erica McCray, Mary Brownell, Margaret Kamman, Suzanne Robinson, CEEDAR Center (2017)

High-leverage practices (HLPs) and evidence-based practices (EBPs) when used together can become powerful tools for improving outcomes for students with disabilities and those who struggle. This brief shows the promise of these practices in advancing educator preparation and practice.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2017)

It is important for parents to understand the "language" of assistive technology so they can be informed advocates for their child's technology needs. The following glossary of terms can help parents learn about the kinds of assistive technologies that are currently available and how they can be used.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2017)

Assistive technology is any kind of technology that can be used to enhance the functional independence of a person with a physical or cognitive disability. Get the basics in this fact sheet from the Center on Technology and Disability.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Reading Rockets helps parents and teachers address the aftermath of natural disasters with children through reading and books.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2017)

Self-advocacy is an important skill for even young kids with dyslexia to develop. But sometimes it’s hard for grade-schoolers to know what to say. Find out how you can help your child by rehearsing common situations she may face.



By: Paula Kluth, Kelly Chandler-Olcott (2017)

With careful and creative planning, literacy instruction can be adapted to meet the needs of every student in the classroom. Five ways teachers can provide a literacy education for all learners are offered here.



By: Paula Kluth (2017)

Many learners with disabilities are visual learners and are best able to understand and remember content when they can see it represented in some way; in other words, they need to “see what we mean.” Three visual supports helpful for teaching and supporting literacy development are described here: picture books, graphic notes, and story kits.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Learn about and watch some of the compelling in-depth news stories and documentaries about autism developed by public broadcasting.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

PBS Kids has been a leader in autism awareness, developing original programming for television, web, and mobile platforms. Learn about the children's program and find links to games for kids and companion resources for parents and educators.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Recent documentaries have taken a fresh look at what it means to "be on the spectrum" and how to celebrate the gifts of neurodiversity.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Browse our lists of high-quality apps to support the emotional, language and communication, organizational, and social needs of kids with autism or Aspergers.



By: Jenn Osen-Foss, Understood (2017)

Discover five graphic organizers that can help kids with dysgraphia, executive functioning issues, and other issues that can cause trouble with writing.



By: Amanda Morin, Understood (2017)

Handwriting involves more than just making letters on a page — it requires strong fine motor and visual-motor skills. Here are some multisensory techniques to try if your child is struggling with writing.



By: Reach Out and Read (2017)

Whether your child has mild or severe Autism Spectrum Disorder, making reading a fun activity can help your child's learning and social skills. You'll find sharing books together can be a good way to connect with your son or daughter. Reading also helps your child's language development and listening skills.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2017)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, you'll learn about accessibility features available in a range of devices as well as apps, websites, and other AT resources across academic areas.



By: National PTA (2017)

Here are 10 simple yet powerful things that parents can do at home to support teachers in their daily work of teaching our young children.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Browse this list of organizations and web resources focused on advocacy, information, and support for families and educators of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We've also identified helpful federal agencies and ASD projects funded by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.



By: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institute of Mental Health (2017)

Learn the basics about autism spectrum disorder (ASD): what it is, signs and symptoms, strengths and abilities, risk factors, diagnosing ASD, the value of early intervention, and treatment and therapies that can help children and their families.



By: Education Week (2017)

Sesame Workshop has introduced Julia, a muppet with autism, to the world of Sesame Street. Using selected clips of Julia from the program, a psychologist explains practical ways teachers can support children with autism.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2017)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, two experts demonstrate and discuss various apps and Assistive Technology (AT) options, including wearable technology to support students with autism.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

National Ambassador for Young People’s Literature Gene Luen Yang calls us all to read Without Walls, exploring books about characters who look or live differently than you, topics you haven’t discovered, or formats that you haven’t tried.



By: Sue Gagliardi, Cricket Media (2017)

Children's magazines are a wonderful supplement to classroom instruction. Students are exposed to a wide variety of texts and lots of interactive content. From stories, poems, and action rhymes to nonfiction, crafts, puzzles, and games, kids’ magazines can offer an abundance of high-interest content to support your curriculum.



By: Reading Rockets (2017)

Similar to comic books, graphic novels weave rich, lively visuals with a limited amount of text to drive the narrative. They can be especially appealing to young readers who are reluctant to pick up a more traditional book. Graphic novels are a great way to help struggling readers strengthen vocabulary, build reading confidence and stamina, and develop a deeper appreciation of storytelling.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2017)

Audio books are a wonderful way to expose your child to complex language, expressive reading, and fantastic stories. Listening to audio books also gives kids the valuable and enjoyable experience of using their own imaginations to visualize the people and places they’re hearing about. Here, you’ll find guidance on what to look for in choosing audio books as well as listening tips.



By: Jessica Sidler Folsom, Iowa Reading Research Center (2017)

Dialogic reading involves an adult and child having a dialogue around the text they are reading aloud together. Learn how to use this strategy effectively to help kids build vocabulary and verbal fluency skills and understand story structure and meaning. Downloadable handouts to help guide parents in using dialogic reading are available in English and 14 other languages.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2017)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, you'll learn about assistive technology funding sources for children with and without IEPs.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, AT professionals from Fairfax County, VA public schools demonstrate how to develop and conduct AT assessments, and implement activities in early childhood classrooms and at home.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2016)

Turn travel time during a family trip into a great bonding and learning adventure with activities that build language for literacy and boost kids’ brain development. Here, you’ll find simple, fun ideas for singing, reading, and sharing family stories together.



By: Accessible Instructional Materials Center of Virginia (2016)

For children with print-based reading disabilities, accessible formats provide alternate versions of print-based books that function in much the same way as a print-based textbook. Learn about the different kinds of accessible formats, including digital talking books, enlarged text, electronic publications, and more.



By: Jonda McNair (2016)

Learn more about books across multiple genres that are representative of the diverse world in which we live, including diversity in race, class, disability, and religion. You'll also find innovative approaches for bringing children and books together, as well as content analyses and descriptions of titles that share common features.



By: Just Read, Florida! (2016)

Research shows that students need at least 90 minutes of uninterrupted reading instruction each day to become strong readers, and that this instruction must be systematic, explicit, scaffolded, and differentiated across the classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2016)

Graphic novels for elementary and middle grade children have become enormously popular and widely accepted by parents, teachers, and librarians. In this resource section, learn more about this highly visual form of storytelling and how it can be used in the classroom, meet some writers and illustrators of graphic novels, and browse the "best of" booklists.



By: Deborah K. Reed, Iowa Reading Research Center (2016)

When spelling is taught in ways that emphasize the patterns of the English language, it can be a beneficial use of class time. Get tips on how to choose word lists that help students learn these patterns and their exceptions.



By: American Academy of Pediatrics (2016)

In a world where children are "growing up digital," it's important to help them learn healthy concepts of digital use and citizenship. Parents play an important role in teaching these skills. Here are a few tips from the American Academy of Pediatrics to help parents manage the digital landscape they're exploring with their children.



By: Reading Rockets (2016)

High/low books offer highly engaging age-appropriate subject matter at a low reading level for struggling readers. High/low books can help build reading fluency, vocabulary, background knowledge, and interest in reading. Learn more about where to find quality high/low books.



By: American Institutes for Research, Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

This resource guide identifies high-quality, useful resources that address various aspects of accessibility: developing an accessibility statement, conducting an accessibility audit, acquiring accessible technology, and building professional development resources on accessibility for school staff and others.



By: Deborah K. Reed, Iowa Reading Research Center (2016)

By actively and independently reading text, students simultaneously can build their word identification, fluency, vocabulary, and text-dependent comprehension skills. Learn about three key steps teachers can take to help students experience success with independent active reading.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker, Maria Salvadore (2016)

How do you choose books to read aloud with your child? There are many things to think about: how interesting the topic or characters might be for your child; an intriguing setting, time period, or plot; the liveliness or beauty of the language; or how engaging the illustrations are. Some books are more appropriate based on social and emotional development at each stage of a young child's life. Find guidance here in choosing great read alouds.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

This guide focuses on ways to encourage the independence of a student with learning disabilities while in school and as they transition to college or work.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

In this video from the Center on Technology and Disability, find out about the impact of apps and screen time on early childhood learning and development. How young is too young?



By: National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorder (2016)

These 27 identified evidence-based teaching practices have been shown through scientific research to be effective when implemented correctly with students with ASD.



By: Donna Mecca (2016)

A veteran reading teacher shares takeaways from her 'Teachers as Readers' learning group. What teachers need: enough time to teach language arts, well-stocked classroom libraries, student input, and meaningful professional development.



By: Lisa Guernsey, Michael Levine (2016)

Take this simple quiz to help you become more mindful in using digital technology with young children. It's all about content that is educational and developmentally appropriate, a context that encourages conversation and learning, and the needs of each individual child.



By: Lisa Guernsey, Michael Levine (2016)

Choose wisely! This list is not exhaustive, but gives parents and educators a good idea of what to look for when considering an app and evaluating its educational value. Use app review sites and advice from literacy experts — including your local media mentor or librarian — to find materials that match children's needs.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, AT specialists demonstrate AT tools to support students with dyslexia and discuss teaching interventions that are explicit, systematic, and multisensory, with plenty of opportunities for practice.



By: Center for Effective Reading Instruction, International Dyslexia Association (2016)

Teaching experience supports a multi-sensory instruction approach in the early grades to improve phonemic awareness, phonics, and reading comprehension skills. Multi-sensory instruction combines listening, speaking, reading, and a tactile or kinesthetic activity. 



By: LD OnLine (2016)

Discover 12 easy tips that encourage multisensory learning at home.



By: Miranda L. Sigmon, Mary E. Tackett, Amy Price Azano (2016)

Children's picture books about autism can be a valuable resource for teachers in inclusive classrooms attempting to teach awareness, empathy, and acceptance among students. This article provides instructional tips for educators and offers suggestions for using children's picture books about autism to encourage positive, inclusive instruction.



By: Carla Coleman, Iowa Reading Research Center (2016)

How can parents support their children when they encounter an unknown word while reading? There are many English words that can’t be sounded out or decoded. Fortunately, there are other ways to help a beginning reader figure out the unknown word. Here are nine suggestions for what you might say.



By: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2016)

Many children are living with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and they need services and support, now and as they grow into adolescence and adulthood. More can be done to ensure that children with ASD are evaluated as soon as possible after developmental concerns are recognized. Learn more about CDC’s new data on ASD.



By: Donna Mecca (2016)

A veteran teacher describes how she used visualization, Google images, video, and Skype to build background knowledge and enrich her students' classroom read aloud of a fiction book about ospreys in the UK.



By: Barbara Moss (2016)

Today’s Independent Reading (IR) programs differ significantly from SSR and DEAR. Effective IR programs require active teacher engagement, time, a broad range of leveled texts, talk around texts, and differentiated instruction. The benefits are well worth it: increased student achievement, motivation, and a love of reading.



By: Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2016)

Many struggling and special needs students have a print disability. Teachers can meet these students’ needs by translating the three principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) into practice. Learn about the seven features of "born accessible materials" and how to select these materials for your school and classroom.



By: Nell Duke (2016)

Is your child enrolled in kindergarten in a school that is implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)? In this overview for parents, learn more about what Common Core is and how to know whether a teacher is providing developmentally appropriate instruction to address the CCSS for your child. Here are some of the questions you might ask yourself.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2016)

Learn how to use two different Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ACC) activity boards to help toddlers and preschoolers expand what they are able to communicate.



By: Rachael Walker (2016)

Where can your school, library, or community group find free or low-cost books for kids? There are a number of national organizations as well as local programs you can turn to for help filling the shelves of your library, classroom, or literacy program and putting books into the hands and homes of young readers.



By: Autism Navigator, Florida State University (2015)

Learn the basics about autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including types of ASD, diagnosis, and red flags for ASD in toddlers.



By: Autism Navigator, Florida State University (2015)

Learn more about social communication problems in young children, how delays in social communication skills can be the earliest signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and what early intervention looks like.



By: Autism Navigator, Florida State University (2015)

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be easy to miss in young children. Some behaviors involving social communication, social interaction, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests may be red flags for ASD.



By: First Words Project, Florida State University (2015)

Treating communication and language difficulties early on can prevent potential problems with behavior, learning, reading and social interaction. Learn more about the five ways that early intervention can help your child and your family.



By: Center on Technology and Disability (2015)

In this webinar from the Center on Technology and Disability, you'll learn about the current research on the use of technology for children birth to 8 years, and the implications of using these tech tools for early learning.



By: Reading Rockets (2015)

There are many people at your child's school who are there to help your child learn, grow socially and emotionally, and navigate the school environment. Here's a selected list of who's who at your school: the teaching and administrative staff as well as organizations at the district level. You might want to keep this list handy all year long.



By: Karin Keith, Celeste Pridemore (2015)

This article explains how to create and use a daybook in the literacy classroom. Readers learn what a daybook is, how the daybook in one fourth and fifth grade classroom is structured, and how students in this classroom use that daybook during reading instruction to engage, record important information, and discuss a text.



By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2015)

Three patterns of reading difficulties are common. This article explains how recognizing these three patterns can provide a valuable starting point for planning reading instruction and interventions.



By: Detra Price-Dennis, Kathlene Holmes, Emily Smith (2015)

Get insight into how a 21st century literacies perspective can support inclusive literacy practices that create a community of learners, use digital tools to make the curriculum accessible, and link academic goals with real‐world platforms.



By: Maria Salvadore, Reading Rockets (2015)

It’s a busy life filled with lots of things to do and even more distractions. But there’s one pursuit that can be fun for everyone involved, plus it has benefits that will have a lifelong impact. All that’s needed is a comfy place, an adult, one child or more, and a good book to share.



By: Erin McTigue, April Douglass, Katherine Wright, Tracey Hodges, Amanda Franks (2015)

Inferential comprehension requires both emotional intelligence and cognitive skills, however instructional comprehension strategies typically underemphasize the emotional contribution. This article documents an intervention used by diverse third grade students which centers on teaching story comprehension through character perspective-taking (i.e., Theory of Mind).



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2015)

Go on a heroes reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2015)

Reading Rockets has developed a set of reading adventure packs to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.



By: Neal Nghia Nguyen, Patrick Leytham, Peggy Schaefer Whitby, Jeffrey I. Gelfer (2015)

Teaching children with autism to comprehend text can be challenging. Here are some strategies educators can incorporate into daily lessons to meet the literacy needs of their students.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2015)

Go on a birding reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Kristie Asaro-Saddler, Haley Muir Knox, Holly Meredith, Diana Akhmedjanova (2015)

Find out the characteristics of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that make writing difficult, and how use of technology can help support writing development. Results of a pilot study that utilized First Author® software to improve the writing of secondary students with ASD are described.



By: Susan Neuman, Tanya Kaefer, Ashley Pinkham (2014)

To comprehend a story or text, young readers need a threshold of knowledge about the topic, and new, tougher state standards place increasing demands on children's prior knowledge. This article offers practical classroom strategies to build background knowledge such as using contrasts and comparisons and encouraging topic-focused wide reading.



By: Patrick Manyak, Heather Von Gunten, David Autenrieth, Carolyn Gillis, Julie Mastre-O'Farrell (2014)

Drawing on instructional materials, classroom images, and observational data from research, the authors illustrate these principles: establishing efficient, rich routines for introducing target word meanings; providing review activities that promote deep processing of word meanings; responding directly to student confusion; and fostering universal participation in and accountability for vocabulary instruction.



By: Frank Serafini (2014)

Wordless picture books may be better defined by what they do contain — visually rendered narratives — rather than what they do not contain. This article challenges traditional ways of looking at wordless picturebooks and offers a few approaches for integrating wordless picturebooks into a wider range of classrooms, preschool through middle school.



By: Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey (2014)

Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of effective classroom routines, including some that can be enhanced with technology.



By: Carolyn Strom (2014)

This teaching tip highlights a strategy that assists teachers in structuring classroom discussions about texts. Specifically, this conversational technique helps students think and talk about a text beyond its literal meaning. Students learn to make decisions about why a particular phrase is the Most Valuable Phrase (MVP) within a text as a whole.



By: Judy Zorfass, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2014)

Find out how to help your students improve their writing through activities and tools that support the drafting stage. Show your students how to use technology tools to create, revise, and store their drafts in a digital writing portfolio.



By: Judy Zorfass, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2014)

An effective way to begin the writing process is to focus on prewriting, which involves organizing ideas, setting goals, and exploring topics. Learn about technology-enhanced strategies to help students create a "road map" that can guide them through the writing process.



By: Judy Zorfass, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2014)

When students engage in "word analysis" or "word study," they break words down into their smallest units of meaning — morphemes. Discover effective strategies for classroom word study, including the use of online tools, captioning, and embedded supports to differentiate instruction.



By: Kate Roth, Joan Dabrowski (2014)

Interactive writing is a dynamic instructional method where teacher and students work together to construct a meaningful text while discussing the details of the writing process. The writing demands of the Common Core standards require explicit and efficient teaching guidance, which is at the heart of interactive writing. Learn four specific ways teachers can adapt this practice when working with children in grades 2-5 who are more developed writers.



By: Judy Zorfass, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2014)

Semantic maps (or graphic organizers) help students, especially struggling students and those with disabilities, to identify, understand, and recall the meaning of words they read in the text.



By: Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey (2014)

Vocabulary lies at the heart of content learning. To support the development of vocabulary in the content areas, teachers need to give their students time to read widely, intentionally select words worthy of instruction, model their own word solving strategies, and provide students with opportunities to engage in collaborative conversations.



By: Cynthia Shanahan, Timothy Shanahan (2014)

This commentary discusses what disciplinary literacy is and why it is important. It then discusses the ways in which elementary school teachers can infuse aspects of disciplinary literacy into elementary instruction. It argues that the Common Core Standards, even those at the K-6 level, are providing avenues for preparation for disciplinary literacy.



By: Judy Zorfass, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2014)

When a student is trying to decipher the meaning of a new word, it's often useful to look at what comes before and after that word. Learn more about the six common types of context clues, how to use them in the classroom and the role of embedded supports in digital text.



By: Tony Stead (2014)

A classroom teacher examines the importance of the nonfiction read aloud as part of ongoing daily instruction, and highlights the need to empower students in both academic achievement, and as life long lovers of nonfiction, through focused informational literature.



By: Kathleen Roskos, Susan Neuman (2014)

For years, the field of reading education has been engaged in thinking about best practices. Explicit instruction in vocabulary, rereading and using digital textbooks to motivate children's reading are among some of these updated best practices. Those in the reading community are urged to consider best practices, and how we may promote their uses, with high fidelity in classroom instruction.



By: Reading Rockets (2014)

Just a few pages from your newspaper can be turned into lots of early learning activities. Here you'll find "letters and words" activities for the youngest, plus fun writing prompts and tips on how to read and analyze the news for older kids.



By: Reading Rockets (2014)

Let’s face it: Not all kids love to write. For some, every step of the writing process is difficult — including spelling, handwriting and getting organized ideas onto paper. In this edition of Growing Readers, you'll learn more about dysgraphia and how you can support your child's writing.



By: Center for Parent Information and Resources, Lisa Küpper, Samara Goodman, Carole Brown (2014)

The birth of a child with a disability, or the discovery that a child has a disability, can have profound effects on the family. In this article, you'll find information to support the life cycle, health, and well-being of the family when a son or daughter has a disability.



By: Maria Nikolajeva (2013)

One potential way of fostering empathy in young children is through picturebooks. Learn about empathy, theory of mind, the development of emotional intelligence, and the role of picturebooks in the classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Preschool aged children love to write — they're always in search of a marker or crayon. Those early scribbles are an important step on the path to literacy. Parents and preschool teachers can support a writer's efforts in some very simple ways. And it's never too early to start!



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Go on an archaeological reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

The new focus on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) includes efforts to get kids involved in computer programming. Coding builds logical thinking and problem-solving skills. It's also creative and collaborative! Find out how you can introduce your child to the basic concepts of programming.



By: Kathryn Roberts, Rebecca Norman, Nell Duke, Paul Morsink, Nicole Martin (2013)

Concepts of print need to be expanded to include graphics, with instruction in how to read and analyze graphical devices such as diagrams, timelines, and tables. Learn more about how to teach young students to read and understand visual information.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Is your school using the new Common Core standards? This is a big change for students — and their parents. Get to know the four "anchors" of the Common Core writing standards and simple things you can do at home to help your child build skills in all of these areas.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2013)

Go on a reading adventure to learn all about our government! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Is your school using the new Common Core standards? This is a big change for students — and their parents. Get to know what the four main areas of the Common Core reading standards mean and simple things you can do at home to help your child build skills in these areas.



By: Margaret McKeown, Amy C. Crosson, Nancy J. Artz, Cheryl Sandora, Isabel Beck (2013)

How can we supplement the limited time available for vocabulary instruction while motivating students to attend to the words they are learning? As a part of an academic word vocabulary intervention, the authors challenged sixth-grade students to find their words in the world around them.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Get ready for a great school year. Discover ideas for planning a sparkling back-to-school night, creating a literacy-rich classroom that is welcoming to all students, establishing an effective 90-minute reading block, building parent engagement, and more.

By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Get ready for a really great school year. Find out what to look for during your school's open house and back-to-school night, tips for helping your child make a smooth transition from summer to school, how to establish homework routines, and even a booklist full of wonderful school-themed picture books to share.

By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Writing for an audience gives kids a reason to use their developing reading and writing skills. Here are some tips to get you and your child started with free, safe blogging sites.



By: Saga Briggs (2013)

In many states, third graders who cannot read proficiently are required to repeat that year. This policy, known as mandatory retention, can greatly impact students' emotional and cognitive development. In an effort to reconcile the academic and social needs of young learners, this article addresses the pros and cons of mandatory retention, global treatment of the problem, and possible solutions.



By: National Center on Response to Intervention (2013)

Learn from a variety of experts on Response to Intervention (RTI) about what RTI is, the relationship between RTI and special education, how to implement RTI effectively district-wide, the role of parents, and much more. Learn more at the National Center on Response to Intervention.



By: Lynn S. Fuchs (2013)

Dr. Lynn Fuchs, Professor of Special Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt University, answers questions about fluency, progress monitoring, reading intervention, and more.



By: Daniel T. Willingham (2013)

Dr. Daniel Willingham, Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia, answers questions about effective teaching, reading comprehension, cognitive science, and more.



By: Tracy Gray (2013)

Dr. Tracy Gray, a nationally recognized expert in education and technology implementation, answers questions about the use of technology to support struggling readers and writers, including children with learning disabilities.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

For most parents, it's a challenge to keep kids reading and writing all summer. Suddenly 10 weeks of summer can feel like a very long time! We've got 10 ideas to help make this summer full of fun, creativity and learning.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Smartphones and tablets are everywhere, and even our youngest children interact with technology on a daily basis. Find out what you as a parent can be doing to help your young learner navigate the digital world — you may need to reconsider how you connect with your child during technology use.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2013)

Go on a "robot" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Heather Schugar, Carol Smith, Jordan Schugar (2013)

Learn about the features in e-books that may distract, support, or extend comprehension and the need for more scaffolding of reading instruction with e-books. The article also addresses ways to familiarize students with multi-touch tablet devices while encouraging students and teachers to transfer print-based reading strategies to this new medium.



By: Sonia Q. Cabell, Laura S. Totorelli, Hope Gerde (2013)

Providing young children with rich writing experiences can lay a foundation for literacy learning. This article presents a framework for individualizing early writing instruction in the preschool classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

April 22nd is Earth Day, an annual celebration dedicated to environmental awareness. Discover five ways you and your family can participate in Earth Day while also practicing reading and writing skills.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2013)

Go on a "gardening" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Second or Third Grade)



By: Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2013)

Learn the basics about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including incidence and the importance of early diagnosis and intervention.



By: Keith Schoch (2013)

From activating prior knowledge to exploring language to capturing character, discover ten ways to integrate poetry into your language, reading, and writing lessons.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Discover ways to support literacy skills such as predicting, inference, cause and effect, and categorizing, as well as build STEM vocabulary and background knowledge, at home and in the classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Poetry is full of joy, expressiveness, and the pure delight of language. Explore how to introduce poetry to young readers, the value of nursery rhymes in learning about language, writing poetry in the classroom, great poetry books for sharing, and interviews with beloved children's poets. Visit our National Poetry Month section for more resources. As poet Carl Sandburg said, remember that with poetry you're stuffing "a backpack of invisible keepsakes."

By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Sharing wordless books is a terrific way to build important literacy skills, including listening skills, vocabulary, comprehension and an increased awareness of how stories are structured.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Discover ways to integrate music into your literacy toolkit. We've included lots of recommendations for quality fiction and nonfiction books about music and musicians, plus hands-on activities to extend the learning. You'll also find tips on using music to help kids with LD boost their language skills.

By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Electronic books are becoming more and more commonplace. Here you'll discover practical tips for sharing e-books with your child, and how to keep the focus on reading and the story.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Learn more about the English spelling system, how spelling supports reading, why children with dyslexia and dysgraphia struggle, which words should be taught, and instruction that works.



By: Laurie J. Curtis (2013)

Give your students a chance to deepen and share their travel experiences through narrative writing, diagrams and illustrations, and the reading of all kinds of print (including maps, brochures and menus). Authentic reading and writing experiences help students connect what's happening in class to the real world outside.



By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Your child may be at a school where they are using an approach called "flipped classroom" or "flipped lesson." If so, keep reading to find out more about the concept, and three ways that you can support flipped learning at home.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Nonfiction books give kids a chance to learn new concepts and vocabulary, as well as broaden their view of the world. Learn how to take a "book walk" with a new nonfiction book and how to model active reading.



By: Melissa Taylor (2012)

Most kids love stories, but not all love to read. Discover 10 creative ways to encourage active kids who would rather run than read, to enjoy digging into books.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

The winter holidays are a great time to create low-key learning opportunities centered around books, storytelling, writing, and family adventures.



By: National Center on Student Progress Monitoring (2012)
The National Center on Intensive Intervention has created a chart of scientifically based tools to measure students' progress. Determine which one best fits your school's needs.

By: Center on Technology and Disability, Tots-n-Tech (2012)

Learn about AT devices that can be used to help children with disabilities participate more fully in literacy-promoting activities and routines.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Our interconnected and digital world demands a lot of our learners. Here are five simple ways to help build your child's critical thinking and problem-solving skills.



By: Susan Lafond (2012)
In this article written for Colorín Colorado, ELL expert Susan Lafond provides an introduction to the Common Core State Standards through a series of user-friendly FAQs.

By: Susan Lafond (2012)
In this article written for Colorín Colorado, ELL expert Susan Lafond provides an overview of the ways in which Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy differ from the standards that states currently use. She also discusses the ways in which these shifts will impact ELL instruction.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Discover simple at-home activities you can use to help your child understand the connection between the letters of the alphabet and the sound associated with each letter.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Discover the importance of early language, listening, and speaking on literacy development. If you suspect that your child or a student is struggling with speech, language, and/or hearing problems, learn more about testing and assessment, accommodations, and additional professional help. You'll also find tips on reading aloud with children who have speech and language problems or who are deaf or hard of hearing.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Finding the right book for your child means finding something your child wants to read AND making sure it's at the right level for your child.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Library Card Sign-up Month is a time to remind parents and children that a library card is the most important school supply of all.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Children's author and historian Marc Aronson discusses the importance of reading nonfiction in developing critical thinking skills.



By: The Language Diversity and Literacy Development Research Group, Harvard Graduate School of Education (2012)

The Lead for Literacy initiative is a series of one-page memos for policymakers and early literacy leaders on how to improve young children's literacy, birth to age 9. Using evidence from research, these briefs are designed to help leaders avoid common mistakes and present solutions and strategies for scalability and impact.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

If you've been around classrooms and teachers, you've probably heard the term "fluency." Fluency is something worth knowing more about! Read on to find out what it is and how to develop it in your young learner.



By: Karen Ford (2012)

In plain language, find out what the Common Core Standards are, how student progress will be measured, their impact on English language learners, and how to stay informed.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Calendars help young children learn the basics of the days of the week and the months of the year. Your family calendar offers opportunities for other learning as well, including vocabulary, sequencing, and math.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "money" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2012)
The research is clear that children who don't read during the summer can lose up to three months of reading progress and that loss has a cumulative, long-term effect. The following resources and articles provide information about summer reading and summer learning loss. Plus you'll discover great activities to encourage kids to learn, read, and have fun in the summer sun.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

To get the most out of a shared reading, encourage your child to appreciate the pictures, and also guide their attention to printed words. Doing so may help your child's reading, spelling, and comprehension skills down the road.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Reading stamina is a child's ability to focus and read independently for long-ish periods of time without being distracted or without distracting others. Find out how you can help your child develop reading stamina.



By: Steve Graham, What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2012)

This practice guide provides four recommendations for improving elementary students' writing. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common roadblocks. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared toward teachers, literacy coaches, and other educators who want to improve the writing of their elementary students.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "night sky" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "flying" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Third Grade)



By: Lesley Morrow (2012)
With the Common Core, literacy is intentionally taught within content areas. See what a CCSS mini-thematic unit in science might look like for children in the primary grades.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Explore how carefully supervised and well implemented tutoring programs can make a difference to struggling readers. Learn about finding the right tutor, tips for tutoring, evidence that tutoring works, how you can help, and even an easy-to-use assessment tool to make the most of a child's tutoring experience.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Science fiction is a type of fiction where the stories revolve around science and technology of the future. As exciting as these books can be, it's good to remind your child that while science fiction may be based loosely on scientific truth, it is still fiction.



By: Alise Brann, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2012)

Learn how technology tools can support struggling students and those with learning disabilities in acquiring background knowledge and vocabulary, improving their reading comprehension, and making connections between reading and writing.



By: Keri Linas, Sandra Soto, Colorín Colorado (2012)

Learn about a partnership between Georgetown University and a local community outpatient care clinic to help improve the early identification of autism in young Latino children, including lessons learned that are relevant to school settings, such as effective communication approaches and building strong relationships with diverse families.



By: Patti Ralabate, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2012)

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) provides the opportunity for all students to access, participate in, and progress in the general-education curriculum by reducing barriers to instruction. Learn more about how UDL offers options for how information is presented, how students respond or demonstrate their knowledge and skills, and how students are engaged in learning.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "bees" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Third Grade)



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "river" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Third Grade)



By: Carole Cox (2012)

Read and discuss poetry with nature imagery with students. Take students on a poetry walk around the school, neighborhood, or community to observe and collect sensory images from direct experience with nature: the sights, sounds, smells, and textures of things outdoors. Students can take a poetry journal with them to write down words as they observe, listen, smell, and touch things outside the classroom.



By: International Dyslexia Association (2012)

Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects a child's handwriting. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression. Learn more about causes, the importance of early assessment, dysgraphia and spelling, and effective instructional strategies that strengthen written language skills.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Creativity is an important characteristic to foster in your child. Fostering a creative spirit will give your child experience identifying a problem and coming up with new ideas for solving it. Here are four ways to encourage creativity in your young child.



By: Get Ready to Read, National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2012)

This checklist helps parents find out how well they are doing in creating a literacy-rich environment in their home, and what more they can do to enrich their child's exposure to books and reading.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Explore two ways you can help your child begin to develop information literacy: learning to tell the difference between fact and opinion, and figuring out if a source of information is reliable.



By: Carole Cox (2012)

Interactive writing makes the writing process visual to the whole class. Reading literature is an excellent way to initiate interactive writing in the class, and the teacher can continue using literature as the class does interactive writing with any new book that is read throughout the year.



By: International Reading Association (2012)
This guidance from the International Reading Association represents a consensus of the thinking of literacy leaders in the field who support thoughtful implementation of the Standards for student literacy achievement. Seven key topics are addressed: use of challenging texts; foundational skills; comprehension; vocabulary; writing; content area literacy; and diverse learners.

By: Dorothy Strickland (2012)
The curriculum framework offered here is a model for Common Core planning and implementation that can be adapted to K-12 in self-contained or departmental settings.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Science learning involves lots of new vocabulary words. Focusing on root words, prefixes and suffixes can help your child learn new science words more quickly and become a word detective!



By: Reading Rockets (2012)

Parents are a child's first teacher, and there are many simple things you can do every day to share the joy of reading while strengthening your child's literacy skills.



By: Carole Cox (2012)
Research has shown the positive effects of improvised story dramatization on language development and student achievement in oral and written story recall, writing, and reading. Learn how to integrate story dramatizations into the classroom, using stories that students are familiar with.

By: Carole Cox (2012)

Writing in journals can be a powerful strategy for students to respond to literature, gain writing fluency, dialogue in writing with another student or the teacher, or write in the content areas. While journaling is a form of writing in its own right, students can also freely generate ideas for other types of writing as they journal.Teachers can use literature that takes the form of a journal by reading excerpts and discussing them with students.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2012)

Go on a "building" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First or Second Grade)



By: Carole Cox (2012)
Oral history is a method to learn about past events from the spoken stories of people who lived through them. When students conduct oral history research with members of their families or community they are participating in active learning rooted in the student's own experience. Students are actively engaged in collecting data when they do oral histories. Not only are they learning history, they are learning to be historians.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Many kids love to read about science and nature as well as real people, places, and events. Nonfiction books present information in engaging and interesting ways. Find out how you can help your child learn to navigate all the parts of a nonfiction book — from the table of contents to the diagrams, captions, glossary, and index.



By: National Center for Education Statistics (2011)
A nationally representative sample of 213,100 fourth-graders participated in the 2011 assessment. Learn more about the key findings and trends in this Reading 2011 snapshot.

By: Elaine Mulligan, National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2011)
Learn the answers to 10 commonly asked questions that families and educators of students with disabilities have about charter schools. You'll also find links to state-specific resources that can help you better understand how charter schools work in your individual state.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Almost every week there is a news story about a new finding or discovery in science. These news stories are one of the exciting steps in the science world: sharing what you find! Helping kids share their own scientific findings will make them feel like part of the scientific community.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn about the common signs of dyslexia, how parents can support their child and celebrate their strengths, the role of assistive technology, how the latest brain research can help kids with dyslexia, and more.

By: Kelly Chandler-Olcott, Paula Kluth (2011)

In addition to the unique gifts and interests that autistic students bring to the classroom as people, their responses can serve as an early warning system for pedagogical problems that are happening in the classroom as a whole.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Real-life scientists use charts and graphs as a way to organize and understand the information they have gathered. Young scientists can do the same! These activities will help you and your child create simple bar charts together, learn the vocabulary of graphing, and have fun building graphs using real objects.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Inferences are what we figure out based on an experience. Helping your child understand when information is implied (or not directly stated) will improve her skill in drawing conclusions and making inferences. These skills will be needed for all sorts of school assignments, including reading, science and social studies.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Reading aloud is one of the most important things parents and teachers can do with children. Learn about how reading aloud builds important foundational skills, such as introducing vocabulary, building comprehension skills, and providing a model of fluent, expressive reading. And get tips on how to make the most out of your read alouds.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Keeping kids interested and motivated to read is sometimes a challenge. Learn how to effectively motivate young learners, including tips from kids for teachers and parents, classroom strategies that work, and guidance for motivating struggling readers, reluctant readers, and boys.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

It's called lots of different things: Drop Everything and Read (DEAR), Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), and Million Minutes to name a few. Regardless of the different names, the intent is the same — to develop fluent readers by providing time during the school day for students to select a book and read quietly. Nearly every classroom provides some time during the instructional day for this independent silent reading. Despite its widespread use in classrooms, silent reading hasn't enjoyed much support in the research literature.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2011)

Go on a "weather" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First or Second Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Discover some simple hands-on activities and games that can be done at home or in the backyard to help your child develop a deeper understanding of cause and effect — and strengthen reading comprehension and scientific inquiry skills.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Preschool teachers and child care providers play a critical role in promoting literacy, preventing reading difficulties, and preparing young children for kindergarten. Learn more about the characteristics of a quality preschool program, activities that build a solid foundation for reading, and how to advocate for your preschool child if you suspect learning delays.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Get the basic facts about what it takes for a young child to learn to read, best practices in teaching reading, the importance of oral language in literacy development, why so many children struggle, and more in this overview.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Helping children understand the concept of sequence develops both literacy and scientific inquiry skills. Here are a few simple activities that families can do together to give kids opportunities to observe, record, and think about sequencing.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Go on a "cooking" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First or Second Grade)



By: Corrie Kelly (2011)

If you are planning to purchase an intervention program for instruction, get as much information as you can about a program's benefits and effectiveness. This article provides basic comparative information about a range of commercially available intervention programs.



By: Sheri Vasinda, Julie McLeod (2011)

The struggling second and third graders in this study increased their reading comprehension after a 10-week Readers Theatre podcasting project. Podcasting made the students aware of a wider audience, which enhanced the authenticity and social nature of the strategy, and made their performances permanent so they could be stored and conveniently retrieved for later listening and evaluation.



By: Carole Cox (2011)
Media-rich and interactive websites can play an essential role in science instruction. They can encourage students to think critically, by providing tools for modeling, visualization, and simulation tools; discussion and scaffolding; and data collection and analysis.

By: Carole Cox (2011)
Using students' questions as a basis for investigations in science education is an effective teaching strategy. Not only do students pose questions they would like answered, but they are asked to find ways to answer them. This article also recommends nonfiction science books that use a question and answer format to find information and model how to communicate what you know.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn more about how very young children acquire the language and phonemic awareness skills that will help them become strong readers, warning signs of delayed development, and how parents can support their child's literacy skills through meaningful conversation and read alouds.

By: Carole Cox (2011)

Keeping a science notebook encourages students to record and reflect on inquiry-based observations, activities, investigations, and experiments. Science notebooks are also an excellent way for students to communicate their understanding of science concepts, and for teachers to provide students with feedback.



By: Carole Cox (2011)
By reading and writing about the lives of real scientists, students can learn more about the nature and history of science and how important scientific discoveries were made. Students may also begin to see themselves as scientists by trying on scientists' lives for size.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Find tips on how to read with your child from the time he is born, learn how to build comprehension and critical thinking skills during read alouds, browse our book-centered activity packs, and discover links to dozens of themed book lists.

By: Carole Cox (2011)
When students practice observing in science, they use their senses to collect information about objects and events related to a question, topic, or problem to solve in science. Learn some strategies to help students organize and analyze their data through presentations, sharing, and discussion.

By: Carole Cox (2011)

When fiction and nonfiction books are integrated into the teaching of a content area such as science, graphic organizers are useful for organizing information and enabling students to classify observations and facts, comprehend the relationships among phenomenon, draw conclusions, develop explanations, and generalize scientific concepts.



By: Carole Cox (2011)

Research has shown that fluent oral reading learned through performance reading leads not only to engagement in and enjoyment of reading for students, but to reading comprehension. Learn how to integrate performance reading activities into your classroom.



By: Carole Cox (2011)
Inquiry-based, discovery-focused science instruction is widely viewed as best practice today. Students learn science best when it is integrated with other areas of the curriculum such as reading, language arts, and mathematics. This includes reading textbooks, newspapers, magazines, online information, and children's and young adult literature, both fiction and nonfiction.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Children begin using their senses to recognize patterns and categorize things at a young age — skills that play an important role in early learning. This tip sheet provides some simple activities, as well as recommended books, that parents can use to help their kids build pattern recognition and categorization skills in science and math.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2011)

Go on an "ocean" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First Grade)



By: Carole Cox (2011)
Timelines are graphic representations of the chronology of events in time. While they are often used as a way to display information in visual form in textbooks as an alternative to written narrative, students can also become more actively engaged in learning the sequence of events in history by constructing timelines themselves.

By: Ruth Heitin (2011)
Learn how to write Individualized Education Plan (IEP) goals that are SMART (specific, measurable, use action words, realistic, and time-limited) and based on research-based educational practice.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Go on a "rocks" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First or Second Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Young kids love technology, gadgets, and nature! While parents may be looking for ways to reduce screen time for their kids, here are a few helpful suggestions for integrating simple technology and books into your outdoor adventures in a fun and educational way.



By: Natalie Heisey, Linda Kucan (2011)

This study of first and second graders looked at teacher-led read-alouds as a way to introduce science concepts. Results suggest that multiple exposures to a related concept across different stories gave students more time to build a mental representation of important ideas. This evidence suggests that moving beyond a single text as a source for building students' understanding is an important instructional approach.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Science and math explorations give your growing reader a chance to strengthen observation and writing skills by keeping a special journal to fill with sketches, notes, and graphs. Try these ideas to get your child started.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Discover ways to support core literacy skills like vocabulary development, reading comprehension, and higher order thinking throughout content area instruction.

By: Katherine A. Dougherty Stahl, Marco A. Bravo (2011)
What are some ways that we can gauge vocabulary development in the content areas? In this article, the authors explain how the intricacies of word knowledge make assessment difficult, particularly with content area vocabulary. They suggest ways to improve assessments that more precisely track students' vocabulary growth across the curriculum, including English language learners.

By: Brad Wilcox, Eula Ewing Monroe (2011)

Teachers often find it difficult to integrate writing and mathematics while honoring the integrity of both disciplines. In this article, the authors present two levels of integration that teachers may use as a starting point. The first level, writing without revision, can be worked into mathematics instruction quickly and readily. The second level, writing with revision, may take more time but enables teachers to connect the writing process more fully with mathematics instruction. Six examples are provided, including student work, in which teachers have successfully attended to the goals of both writing and mathematics.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn about fluency assessment, the importance of fluency in building comprehension skills, finding the right book level for kids, effective classroom strategies like reader's theater and choral reading, and more.

By: Alise Brann, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2011)

One motivating, engaging, and inexpensive way to help build the foundational reading skills of students is through the use of closed-captioned and subtitled television shows and movies. These supports can help boost foundational reading skills, such as phonics, word recognition, and fluency.



By: Michelle Newlands (2011)

These seven steps provide an approach to spelling instruction that encourages word study based on the words students experience in their daily writing activities. The goal of intentional spelling is to shift spelling instruction from a focus on the number of words spelled correctly to developing an understanding of how words work.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn why phonological awareness is critical for reading and spelling, milestones for acquiring phonological skills, effective teaching strategies like rhyming games, how parents can help build skills, and more.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Hands-on measurement activities are fun to explore with children. Introduce your young learner to these interesting new vocabulary words and knowledge, and help your child develop an early love of measuring everything in sight!



By: Reach Out and Read (2011)

Children with speech and language problems may have trouble sharing their thoughts with words or gestures. They may also have a hard time saying words clearly and understanding spoken or written language. Reading to your child and having her name objects in a book or read aloud to you can strengthen her speech and language skills.



By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
If your child has ADHD, paying attention for long periods of time can be a challenge. So, meet the challenge head-on — make reading time fun time for you and your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn more about how to increase higher order thinking, developing comprehension across the content areas, the value of read alouds, effective classroom strategies, and more.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)

You'll find sharing books together is a great way to bond with your son or daughter and help your child's development at the same time. Give your child a great gift that will last for life — the love of books.



By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
You'll find sharing books together is a great way to bond with your son or daughter. Reading also helps your child's language development and listening skills when you talk about the story and ask questions. Large print books can help a child with mild to moderate vision loss discover the world of books and make tracking the words easier.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
Cerebral palsy can cause difficulty with muscle tone and control. Your child may have delays speaking or have speech that is hard to understand. Reading with your child and having your child name objects in the book or read aloud to you can strengthen his speech skills. You'll find sharing books together is a great way to bond with your son or daughter and help your child's development at the same time.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Browse our resources about how to build academic language, the value of quality children's books, effective classroom strategies like word maps and semantic feature analysis, how parents can nurture vocabulary development at home, and more.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
Like all children, your child will learn and develop, yet she will likely develop more slowly than other children her age. Reading aloud and talking about the story and the pictures will help your child improve her vocabulary and help teach grammar. Here are some other tips to help your child enjoy books and reading.

By: Carol A. Donovan, Laura B. Smolkin (2011)

This article presents a developmental framework of informational writing developed from a study of children's writing in K-5 classrooms. See examples of children's compositions at each developmental level, and learn how to use this continuum to support increasingly more mature forms of informational text.



By: Education Northwest (2011)

What do parents need to know about the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)? How will they affect teaching and assessing mathematics and English language arts? What are the benefits and what can parents do to prepare for the CCSS?



By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Browse our resources about the developmental stages of writing, effective classroom strategies, assessment, writing disabilities, supporting writing at home, and more.

By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2011)

Go on a "Lorax" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First Grade)



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Scientists, just like readers, make predictions all the time. Help your child begin to see the connection between what she does as a reader and what she can do as a scientist. Here are two simple ways you can encourage your child to put her prediction skills to work as a scientist.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

Many of the "tools" needed for science, math, and engineering exploration are right inside your home! Here are five ideas for putting everyday tools to work for some everyday fun:



By: Bridget Dalton, Dana L. Grisham (2011)

Drawing on research-based principles of vocabulary instruction and multimedia learning, this article presents 10 strategies that use free digital tools and Internet resources to engage students in vocabulary learning. The strategies are designed to support the teaching of words and word learning strategies, promote students' strategic use of on-demand web-based vocabulary tools, and increase students' volume of reading and incidental word learning.



By: Masoumeh Akhondi, Faramarz Aziz Malayeri, Arshad Abd Samad (2011)

Expository text can be challenging to young readers because of the unfamiliar concepts and vocabulary it presents. Discover ways to help your students analyze expository text structures and pull apart the text to uncover the main idea and supporting details.



By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)
Learn more about the four recommended practices in Response to Intervention (RTI): universal screening; progress monitoring and differentiation; systematic skill instruction; and system-wide implementation.

By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)

The What Works Clearinghouse reviewed the research on two practices used in center-based settings with 3- to 5-year-old preK children, as well as a number of specific curricula. Positive results are shown for (1) Phonological awareness training and (2) Interactive and dialogic reading.



By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)

Explore the five recommended practices for teaching literacy in English to English language learners: (1) Screen and monitor progress, (2) Provide reading interventions, (3) Teach vocabulary, (4) Develop academic English, and (5) Schedule peer learning.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

One way parents can help children become interested in science is by explaining the scientific process. The scientific process is the way scientists go about asking and answering scientific questions by making observations and doing experiments. It starts with asking a question.



By: Elaine K. McEwan (2011)
Reading in the "comfort zone" means that students read well enough to understand the text. Here's a simple technique that students can use to determine if a book is right for them.

By: Elaine K. McEwan (2011)

Familiarity with Greek and Latin roots, as well as prefixes and suffixes, can help students understand the meaning of new words. This article includes many of the most common examples.



By: PACER Center (2011)

All parents want their children to receive the best education possible. One way to help your child succeed is to know if the school is using effective teaching and intervention practices. But how can schools and parents know if a practice is effective? One method is to see if there is any research or "evidence" to prove that the practice works. This handout explains the meaning of "evidence-based practices" and why they are important. It also lists resources where parents can learn more.



By: Reading Rockets (2011)

The purpose of report cards is to communicate about a child's progress across subject areas. Some kids, especially those having difficulty in school, dread report card time. Here are some suggestions for making report card time a little less scary and a little more productive.



By: Carole Cox (2011)

Students often have difficulty understanding abstract map symbols. Learn how to introduce map skills with literature that contextualizes mapping in a narrative, can be related to where in the world each student lives, and engages students by actively "doing geography."



By: Carole Cox (2011)

Music stories are compositions of a narrative or descriptive sort. Students can listen for the story in the music, and this type of music can be integrated with literature, literacy, social studies, science, mathematics, and the other arts.



By: Vanessa Morrison, Lisa Wheeler (2010)

Learn about evidence-based practices that encourage first graders' engagement with texts. The authors review reading as a transactional process, revisit the benefits of reading aloud to students, discuss three literacy strategies implemented in one first-grade classroom, and share examples of student work.



By: Roberta Sejnost, Sharon Thiese (2010)
To help students comprehend expository text structures, teachers can acquaint them with the signal or cue words authors utilize in writing each of the structures and use the graphic organizers offered in this article

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Stepping outside is a simple way to set foot into nature's laboratory. Backyards and neighborhood walks can lead to interesting conversations, new vocabulary words, observations, predictions, and investigations. Try these fun outdoor exploration activities to nurture the budding scientist or mathematician in your home!



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Homework is important, but helping children with homework isn't always easy. Here are some ways you can make homework easier for everyone!



By: Kate Garnett (2010)

Classrooms can be perilous in a number of ways for students with learning disabilities. Here are some tips to remember when working with students with LD.



By: Kathryn Glasswell, Michael P. Ford (2010)

Find out how it benefits all students to read challenging texts. Rather than avoiding any use of more difficult texts, teachers can use instructional support to help students gain access to a more challenging reading experience. Learn how to make shared reading, guided reading, and independent reading more powerful and effective in your classrooms.



By: Kathy Ruhl, Charles Hughes (2010)
A review of the research on the effective use of homework for students with learning disabilities suggests that there are three big ideas for teachers to remember: (1) the best use of homework is to build proficiency in recently acquired skills or to maintain skills previously mastered; (2) homework should be individualized; and (3) teachers should evaluate homework and provide detailed feedback to students.

By: Education Northwest (2010)
Learn the basics about the Common Core State Standards (CCSS): how they will affect teaching, the benefits and key features of the standards, assessment, and what teachers can do now to prepare for CCSS implementation.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Critical thinking, the ability to think deeply about a topic or a book, is an essential skill for children to develop. Here are some helpful tips and recommended books to strengthen your child's ability to think critically.



By: Paula Kluth (2010)

Students with autism may have unique needs with learning, social skills, and communication. These ten simple ideas will help teachers address some of these needs and provide guidance for bringing out the best in learners with autism.



By: Paula Kluth (2010)

For many learners with autism, transitions are the toughest part of schooling. These four strategies are designed to prepare the learner with autism for a new school or a new schooling experience and can be used days or months before the student arrives as well as throughout the school year.



By: Paula Kluth (2010)

To create environments most conducive to learning for students with autism and their peers without disabilities, teachers may need to examine ways in which classroom spaces are organized. Specifically, teachers may need to consider the sounds, smells, lighting, and seating options in the classrooms.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)

Speech recognition, also referred to as speech-to-text or voice recognition, is technology that recognizes speech, allowing voice to serve as the "main interface between the human and the computer." This Info Brief discusses how current speech recognition technology facilitates student learning, as well as how the technology can develop to advance learning in the future.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

No one wants to start their day in a frenzied mess of untied shoes and breakfast in hand as the school bus approaches. Follow these five short recommendations for smoothing out those rough mornings.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Go on a "snowy day" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Our Top 8 back-to-school tips for parents emphasize communication, organization, and staying up-to-date on special education news.



By: Sheryl Honig (2010)

The framework provided in this article for viewing students' science writing offers teachers the opportunity to assess and support scientific language acquisition.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2010)

Go on a "farm" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Kindergarten)



By: Kandace Wernsing, Reading Rockets (2010)

Our top 10 back-to-school tips for special education teachers emphasize communication, organization, and a focus on student success.



By: Linda Golson Bradley, Carol A. Donovan (2010)

Learn how to teach children to write informational text through the use of focused read-alouds that include discussions of information book genre elements, features, and organizational structure. See examples of book compositions by second-grade authors that demonstrate how read-alouds can support young writers' genre knowledge development.



By: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center (2010)
Learn about American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual programs to support the acquisition, learning, and use of ASL and English to meet the needs of diverse learners who are deaf and hard of hearing.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Summer's temperatures often send kids and parents inside to cooler air. Here are a few tips to make the most of those hot afternoons with some literacy and math fun using only your newspaper, computer, or other household items.



By: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center (2010)
This article describes research-based principles and best practices for reading to deaf children. The underlying principle is a positive belief in the children's ability to become strong, enthusiastic readers.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)
The IEP guides the delivery of special education and related services and supplementary aids and supports for the child with a disability. Without a doubt, writing and implementing an effective IEP requires teamwork. So, who's on the team?

By: Michelle J. Kelley, Nicki Clausen-Grace (2010)

The text feature walk guides students in the reading of text features in order to access prior knowledge, make connections, and set a purpose for reading expository text. Results from a pilot study illustrate the benefits of using the strategy, and practical suggestions for implementation are offered.



By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

Get the basics on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), including signs, treatment, accommodations in school, and tips for parents and teachers.



By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Consider organizing a book swap for your neighborhood or block. It can be a simple afternoon undertaking, or with more time and effort, a fun event that will become an annual tradition!



By: Ann Dolin (2010)

The summer is a time to unwind and relax for parents and kids alike, but learning should not come to a halt. By focusing on your child's interests, involving the family, and setting goals, you can motivate even the most reluctant learners



By: Sharon Vaughn, Alba Ortiz (2010)
This article briefly highlights the knowledge base on reading and RTI for ELLs, and provides preliminary support for the use of practices related to RTI with this population.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Letters are all around us! Here are some ideas on how to use print found in your everyday environment to help develop your child's reading skills.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Almost every interaction in a child's world is preparing them to become a reader and writer. This article outlines the stages of writing development, and tips for adults to help along the way.

By: Paula Kluth (2010)

Reading comprehension is often a concern for the teachers of students with autism. The comprehension strategies described in this article may help some students gain comprehension skills and improve their ability to read and communicate about written material.



By: Paula Kluth (2010)

Some students identified with autism can participate successfully in whole-class rich literacy experiences, with the right kind of support. Learn about strategies for designing lessons that are appropriate, engaging, and challenging for every learner in the inclusive classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Sharing poetry with kids is a great way to highlight language. Poems offer humor, interesting words, tongue twisters, alliteration, and opportunities for choral reading (reading together). Find out how to plan a lively and fun family poetry jam!



By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2010)
Hearing is critical to speech and language development, communication, and learning. Children with listening difficulties due to hearing loss or auditory processing problems continue to be an underidentified and underserved population.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

An introduction to 6 + 1 Trait® Writing, customized rubrics, student self-assessment, and peer editing.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Sharing lots of different kinds, or genres, of books with your child exposes him to different words, different kinds of images, and whole new worlds. This tip sheet suggests some genres to try with your young reader that complement 'traditional' fiction. Some are suggestions for read alouds, while others may be ones your child can read on his own.



By: Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, Linda Kucan (2010)

Teaching vocabulary is complex. What words are important for a child to know and in what context? In this excerpt from Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, the authors consider what principles might be used for selecting which words to explicitly teach.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)

Knowing how to engage in signature scientific acts, such as formulating questions and using evidence in arguments is an important part of science learning. This InfoBrief from the National Center for Technology Innovation offers more information about using technology to support struggling students.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
To be scientifically literate, students must be able to express themselves appropriately. Learn how to help struggling students master specific vocabulary and be able to use it in their science writing activities.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
In an increasingly complex world, all students need to be scientifically literate. While some students may go on to pursue advanced careers in the sciences, basic scientific literacy is critical for all students.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Science learning often involves creating abstract representations and models of processes that we are unable to observe with the naked eye. Learn more about visualizing, representing, and modeling to aid struggling learners.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

In preschool, your child will learn many types of skills. Reading books together in which the characters are going through the same thing can also help your preschooler develop these important skills.Below are four books in which the characters are learning some of the same skills as your preschooler. Consider adding these to your next stack from the library.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
The type of physical tasks often present in many science lessons can present significant barriers for many students with learning disabilities or physical impairments. How can teachers find ways for these students to participate?

By: Carol McDonald Connor, Sibel Kaya, Melissa Luck (2010)

This study describes a second-grade science curriculum designed to individualize student instruction so that students, regardless of initial science and literacy skills, gain science knowledge and reading skills. The instruction incorporates flexible, homogeneous, literacy skills-based grouping, use of leveled science text, and explicit use of discussion and comprehension strategies.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2010)

Go on a Seussian Green Eggs and Ham reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Children who comprehend the most from their reading are those who know a lot about words. They are familiar with word prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and multiple meanings of words. Families can help develop word knowledge through simple conversations focused on words.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

It's important to remember that a lack of sleep can greatly impact your preschooler's behavior and ability to have a good day at preschool. Try this little experiment with your child to make sure they understand and maintain an appropriate sleep schedule.



By: Holly Lane, Stephanie Allen (2010)
The teacher's use of language provides an important model for children's vocabulary development. By modeling the use of sophisticated words, teachers can promote students' vocabulary growth and word consciousness. In this article, the research support for this approach is explained, suggestions are provided for how teachers might accomplish this goal, and examples are shared from teachers who have done it successfully.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Go on a "sleepy" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Some parents are reluctant to contact their child's teacher. Don't be! A quick conversation or email exchange can solve simple misunderstandings, or make it clear that a longer, more formal conversation is needed. Here are three situations where parent contact is appropriate and even encouraged.



By: National Education Association, Rachael Walker (2010)

Combine Dr. Seuss and your local newspaper for some reading and writing fun in your classroom or at home.



By: National Education Association, Rachael Walker (2010)

Seuss silliness is contagious! Spread it to your classroom writing centers.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

Choosing a preschool for your child can be a tough decision; what works for one child may not work for another. This is particularly true for a preschooler with special learning or behavior needs. Get a head start on finding the right setting for your preschooler.



By: Family Center on Technology and Disability (2010)

The law requires that public schools develop appropriate Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for each child. The IEP is a written plan for educating a child with a disability. The IEP describes the student's specific special education needs as well as any related services, including assistive technology.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

As parent, you know how important it is to set aside some time everyday to read with your baby or toddler. If you've got a squiggler in your house, see if these tips help your reading time go a little more smoothly.



By: Reading Rockets (2010)

The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the Council on Children with Disabilities published a statement summarizing what is currently known about visual problems and dyslexia. The statement also covers what treatments are and are not recommended when diagnosing and treating vision problems, learning disabilities, and dyslexia.



By: Center for American Progress, Claire E. White, James S. Kim (2009)

The powerful combination of systematic vocabulary instruction and expanded learning time has the potential to address the large and long-standing literacy gaps in U.S. public schools, particularly with low-income students and English language learners.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

The best story times are very interactive: You are talking about and reading the story, your child is talking, and there is conversation taking place between the two of you — what educators call "dialogic" reading.



By: Karen J. Kindle (2009)

Reading aloud is a common practice in primary classrooms and is viewed as an important vehicle for vocabulary development. Read-alouds are complex instructional interactions in which teachers choose texts, identify words for instruction, and select the appropriate strategies to facilitate word learning. This study explored the complexities by examining the read-aloud practices of four primary teachers through observations and interviews.



By: Sharon Ruth Gill (2009)

Children's nonfiction picture books is a genre that is exploding in both quality and quantity. Recent nonfiction books reveal an emphasis on the visual, an emphasis on accuracy, and an engaging writing style. Suggestions are included for choosing and using nonfiction picture books in the classroom.



By: Ruth Sylvester, Wendy-lou Greenidge (2009)
While some young writers may struggle with traditional literacy, tapping into new literacies like digital storytelling may boost motivation and scaffold understanding of traditional literacies. Three types of struggling writers are introduced followed by descriptions of ways digital storytelling can support their development.

By: Mariam Jean Dreher, Jennifer Letcher Gray (2009)

This article explains how to teach students to identify the compare-contrast text structure, and to use this structure to support their comprehension. It also shows how to use compare-contrast texts to activate and extend students' background knowledge and expand and enrich their vocabulary.



By: Paola Pilonieta, Adriana L. Medina (2009)

Originally designed with seventh grade students, Reciprocal Teaching is a research-based strategy that teaches students to work in small groups to coordinate the use of four comprehension strategies: prediction, clarification, summarization, and student-generated questions. This article illustrates how to implement Reciprocal Teaching for the Primary Grades (RTPG). Modifications include: additional strategies, cue cards with pictures and scripts, group work interspersed with whole class follow-up, and an independent written component for individual student accountability.



By: Alice Thomas, Glenda Thorne (2009)

Parents and teachers can do a lot to encourage higher order thinking. Here are some strategies to help foster children's complex thinking.



By: Alice Thomas, Glenda Thorne (2009)

As students grow older, they are asked by their teachers to do more and more with the information they have stored in their brains. These types of requests require accessing higher order thinking (HOT).



By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)

If your child has a learning disability, he or she may benefit from assistive technology tools that play to their strengths and work around their challenges.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation, Center for Implementing Technology in Education (CITEd) (2009)
Many computer products have built-in accessibility options such as text-to-speech, screen magnification options, or voice input controls. Learn what some of these optional features are and how to integrate them into instruction and studying.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2009)

Basic listening skills and "word awareness" are critical precursors to phonological awareness. Learn the milestones for acquiring phonological skills.



By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2009)

Additional and explicit instruction in phonological awareness is a critical component in helping fourth grade readers who struggle with phonological deficits. The exercises can be used as a warm-up prior to reading, spelling, or vocabulary instruction.



By: Wendy B. Meller, Danielle Richardson, J. Amos Hatch (2009)
Teacher read-alouds are a vital part of literacy instruction in primary classrooms. Learn how to conduct read-alouds that feature high-quality children's books which will prompt children to think and talk about social issues that impact their daily lives.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)

One way to help a child comprehend what he is reading is to encourage him to visualize parts of the story in his mind. These "mind movies" help clarify information, increase understanding, and can include any of the five senses. Try these practices below when reading with your child.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Parents and caregivers are often the first to notice when their child may be showing signs of delayed development. Get answers and advice with this easy-to-understand information about developmental delays.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Blending (combining sounds) and segmenting (separating sounds) are phonological awareness skills that are necessary for learning to read. Developing your child's phonological awareness is an important part of developing your child as a reader. Learn how working on phonological awareness can be fun and easy below.



By: Barbara Marinak, Linda Gambrell (2009)

Exposing young children to informational text early on can help them to handle the literacy demands of fourth grade and beyond. Practical instructional techniques can be used to promote understanding and enjoyment of informational texts. The three techniques described here — Text Impression, Guiding Questions, and the Retelling Pyramid — can help children become familiar with the language and structure of non-fiction books.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

By providing an environment rich in language and where thinking is encouraged, you can help your preschooler develop important numeracy and literacy skills. Here are four everyday examples of ways to integrate language and math.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2009)

Go on a "Wild Thing" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Back-to-School Night is a great opportunity for families to learn more about their child's school and teacher. Here are some signs to look for that indicate your child is in a place where good reading instruction can take place.



By: Susan Hall (2009)
Parents are often the first to suspect their child has a reading problem. An expert alerts parents to some of the earliest indicators of a reading difficulty.

By: PBS KIDS Raising Readers (2009)
Everyday activities are a natural and effective way to begin teaching your young child about letters and words. Download and print these colorful "take-along" activities the next time you go to the grocery store or farmer's market. Turn your regular trip into a reading adventure!

By: Kristin Stanberry, Lee Swanson (2009)

Research-based information and advice for sizing up reading programs and finding the right one for your child with a learning disability.



By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)

Learn about assistive technology tools — from abbreviation expanders to word-recognition software programs — that address your child's specific writing difficulties.



By: Charles A. MacArthur (2009)
Learn from an expert why some kids with learning disabilities struggle with writing and how some instructional approaches can help.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)

Learn about assistive technology tools — from audiobooks to variable-speed tape recorders — that help students with reading.



By: Portland Public Schools (OR), Colorín Colorado (2009)

You can and should use what you already know to be effective, research-based reading instruction to English language learners (ELLs). However, ELLs will need additional support in learning how to read, and the strategies here will help you to provide assistance in your everyday teaching, particularly for newcomers (students who have recently arrived in the U.S.).



By: Bruce Murray (2009)

Phoneme awareness is the ability to identify phonemes, the vocal gestures from which words are constructed, when they are found in their natural context as spoken words. Children need phoneme awareness to learn to read because letters represent phonemes in words.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

When the back-to-school bell starts ringing, parents often hear and read school-related terms that are unfamiliar to them. Below are three terms and descriptions related to reading instruction that may help give you a better understanding of what's happening in your child's classroom and what it all means for your young learner.



By: Reading Rockets, Rachael Walker (2009)

Go on a "dinosaur" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: First grade)



By: Colorín Colorado (2009)

On a daily basis, ELLs are adjusting to new ways of saying and doing things. As their teacher, you are an important bridge to this unknown culture and school system. There are a number of things you can do to help make ELLs' transitions as smooth as possible.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Talking to and reading with your child are two terrific ways to help them hear and read new words. Conversations and questions about interesting words are easy, non-threatening ways to get new words into everyday talk. Here are some ideas to get you started.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)
For almost 40 percent of kids, learning to read is a challenge. So in addition to talking, reading, and writing with their child, families play another important role — being on the lookout for early signs of possible trouble.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
It's important to recognize what good schools look like. The quality of your child's school has a huge impact on his or her learning.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Once your child moves into first, second, and third grade, being able to read fluently and comprehend what he or she reads become critical for future success in school.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)

"Get Ready to Read" is a fast, free, research-based, and easy-to-use screening tool. It consists of 20 questions that parents and caregivers can ask a four-year-old to see if he or she is on track for learning how to read.



By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2009)

Learn more about where to find help if you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay. A developmental evaluation will be used to decide if your child needs early intervention services and/or a treatment plan specifically tailored to meet a child's individual needs.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Day trips, vacations and special outings create special memories and great learning opportunities for families. Here are a few "stops" to make before your visit to help your child get the most out of a family or school educational experience.



By: National Institutes of Health (2009)

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders presents age-related guidelines that can help you determine if your child's speech and language skills are developing on schedule.



By: National Summer Learning Association (2009)
The National Center for Summer Learning identified nine characteristics of effective summer learning programs, and recommends that all summer learning providers work toward incorporating these broad characteristics into current programming.

By: National Summer Learning Association (2009)
This tip sheet from the Center for Summer Learning shares some things parents can do to keep kids sharp over the summer.

By: America Reads at Bank Street College of Education (2009)

From previewing to reading with expression, here are several helpful hints for anyone preparing to read a book aloud to a group of children.



By: Kristina Robertson (2009)
English language learners can benefit from field trips that provide an experience that enhances classroom learning. It can be overwhelming for a teacher to think of organizing all the details of a field trip, but with some planning beforehand and a few extra steps, field trips can be very successful! This article offers some ways to make the field trips with ELLs go more smoothly and to provide students with a meaningful academic experience.

By: North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2009)
Too often, teachers say that the professionaldevelopment they receive provides limited application to their everyday world of teaching and learning. Here The North Central Regional Educational Laboratory shares a five-phase framework that can help create comprehensive, ongoing, and — most importantly — meaningful professional development.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)

A simple trip to the grocery store can turn into a real learning experience for your preschooler. Below are some easy ways to build literacy and math skills while getting your shopping done at the same time!



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

A simple trip to the grocery store can turn into a real learning experience for your child. Below are some easy ways to build literacy and math skills while getting your shopping done at the same time!



By: Bank Street College of Education (2009)
Playing games is a great way to provide additional practice with early reading skills. Here are six games parents or tutors can use to help young readers practice word recognition, spelling patterns, and letter-sound knowledge.

By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning, Corrin Chambers (2009)

Go on a "Very Hungry Caterpillar" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books. (Level: Pre-K and Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on a "green" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: First grade)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on a "folktales" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: First grade)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on a "time" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: First grade)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on a "musical" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on an "animal" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: Kindergarten)



By: Reading Rockets, Eileen Hanning (2009)

Go on a "food" reading adventure! Teachers can support reading together at home with our reading adventure packs — designed to encourage hands-on fun and learning centered around paired fiction and nonfiction books.
(Level: Kindergarten)



By: Kristina Robertson (2009)

This article offers some ideas on how to introduce poetry to ELLs and integrate it with reading instruction, as well as some ideas for reading poetry aloud in a way that will encourage oral language development.



By: Kristina Robertson (2009)
This article discusses strategies for writing poetry with ELLs, presents an overview of poetry forms that can be used effectively in writing lessons, and suggests some ideas for ways to share student poetry.

By: The National Early Literacy Panel (2009)

The National Early Literacy Panel looked at studies of early literacy and found that there are many things that parents and preschools can do to improve the literacy development of their young children and that different approaches influence the development of a different pattern of essential skills.



By: National PTA (2009)
How can you express appreciation for a teacher who has educated and inspired your child? Here the National PTA offers ideas for parents, students, and schools to say a meaningful "thank you."

By: Joanne Meier (2009)
Most beginning readers are inconsistent. Learn more about the characteristics of a beginning reader and simple techniques and tips to nurture your child's skills and joy in reading.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Libraries are great resources for families with young children; you can find books, entertainment, educational and cultural enrichment, literacy tips, and other valuable information. Here are nine reasons to visit your public library!



By: America Reads at Bank Street College of Education (2009)

Tutors can play very important roles in the lives of the children they work with. Learn about these roles and the types of tutoring programs that are available to provide young readers with one-on-one support.



By: Cheri Williams, Colleen Phillips-Birdsong , Krissy Hufnagel, Diane Hungler (2009)

Word study is an approach to spelling instruction that moves away from a focus on memorization. The approach reflects what researchers have discovered about the alphabetic, pattern, and meaning layers of English orthography. This article describes nine tips for implementing a word study program in your classroom.



By: Alise Brann, Judy Zorfass, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2009)

Technology tools and supports can be an excellent way to help struggling students engage with social studies texts in a meaningful way, and build deeper understanding through guided inquiry.



By: Alise Brann, Tracy Gray, Judy Zorfass, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2009)
To help students become comfortable with multimedia, it is useful to incorporate it into your instruction wherever possible. Providing varied means of representing information (Universal Design for Learning) can help improve your students' access to complex texts.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that in tier 3 of Response To Intervention, schools provide provide intensive instruction on a daily basis that promotes the development of the various components of reading proficiency to students who show minimal progress after reasonable time. It also provides some specific features that should be considered in carrying out this recommendation.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that students in tier 2 of RTI be monitored at least monthly, and use this data to determine if and how primary grade students may need additional reading instructional support.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
The What Works Clearninghouse reviewed the research available about using Response To Intervention to help primary grade students overcome reading struggles. WWC's recommendation for tier 2 of RTI is to provide intensive, systematic instruction on up to three foundational reading skills in small groups to students.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that in tier 1 of Response To Intervention, schools provide differentiated reading instruction for all students based on assessments of students' current reading levels.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
This is a checklist to help educators carry out the five recommendations made in the What Works Clearninghouse report Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RTI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
According to research, the Education Department's What Works Clearinghouse finds that the first step in using Response To Intervention to help early elementary-aged students learn to read is to screen all students and regularly monitor students who are at elevated risk of reading problems.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Writing is a terrific way for children to express their thoughts, creativity, and uniqueness. It is also a fundamental way in which children learn to organize ideas and helps them to be better readers.



By: Kristina Robertson (2009)
Language plays an important part in math instruction, particularly for ELLs. This article offers some strategies for making language an integral part of math instruction, and for ensuring that ELLs have the tools and language they need to master mathematical concepts, procedures, and skills.

By: Ania Siwek (2009)

A psychologist specializing in language-based learning disabilities explains how to talk to children about their LD: All the parts you need to be smart are in your brain. Nothing is missing or broken. The difference between your brain and one that doesn't have an LD is that your brain gets "traffic jams" on certain highways.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Heading off to kindergarten is a big event for all kids and parents. For young children who have struggled socially or academically during preschool, it is a transition that needs careful planning and attention. Below are four suggestions for parents of children who may need extra help making a successful move to kindergarten.



By: Jerry Pinkney (2009)
Jill Lauren's That's Like Me! is a book about 15 students with disabilities who face challenges in school but express their creativity and talents through hobbies. In the foreword, excerpted here, children's book illustrator Jerry Pinkney describes growing up with two personas: Jerry the gifted artist and Jerry the struggling reader.

By: Joanne Meier (2009)
Teachers use a leveling system to determine your child's reading score. Learn about the three major leveling systems and how to understand the meaning behind the scores.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2009)
It's never too early to start looking for ways to help your child succeed in learning. This article covers children who are under 2 and who are in preschool. They have rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Find out the first steps to take if you suspect your child has difficulty learning.

By: Sherrye Dee Garrett (2009)
Introducing elementary-aged students to local and community news through the newspaper can help them strengthen comprehension and research skills. Community news keeps it relevant to the kids, enhancing motivation to discuss and learn more about what they are reading. Classroom activities are included in this article.

By: Kristina Robertson (2009)

ELLs can benefit from Reader's Theater activities in a number of ways, including fluency practice, comprehension, engaging in a story, and focusing on vocal and physical expression. Kristina Robertson offers a number of approaches to Reader's Theater with ELLs in this article.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Reading with comprehension means understanding what's been read. It takes practice, time, and patience to develop reading comprehension skills. Here is a before-during-after approach that families can use to help children learn to read for understanding.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

What is Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) and how does it work? Find out more about CORI and how it helps children's comprehension and motivation through science inquiry.



By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2009)
Young children are naturally curious. Early childhood educators and parents can build on children's questions, eagerness, and enthusiasm to help them learn science.

By: Yoo-Seon Bang (2009)
Informed by the author's work as a researcher and as a Korean parent of a child in a U.S. public school, this article offers suggestions to guide educators in understanding and supporting the involvement of cultural and linguistic minority families in their children's schools.

By: Linda Gambrell, Barbara Marinak (2009)
Researchers have identified a number of factors important to reading motivation including self-concept and value of reading, choice; time spent talking about books, types of text available, and the use of incentives.

By: Linda Gambrell, Barbara Marinak (2009)

Honoring books for self-selection, sharing the excitement of read-alouds, building a balanced book collection, making your passions public, and providing rewards that demonstrate the value of reading are just a few simple but transformative suggestions that can nurture the love of reading in your classroom.



By: Kristina Robertson (2009)

This Bright Ideas article recommends five specific and measurable actions teachers can implement to assist ELL learning in the upcoming year. The resource section has links to helpful articles and websites for further support.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)

Having interesting things to read at home is a great way to keep kids motivated. Below are a few questions to ask yourself about your home library. Some simple changes on your part can help you create an amazing home library, and help your child develop an early love of reading!



By: Rebecca Silverman (2009)
The principles of a multidimensional vocabulary program hold promise for supporting the vocabulary development of all students, especially English language learners. Eight characteristics of a multidimensional approach are described. The first is the introduction of new words through engaging children's literature.

By: Rebecca Silverman, Sara Hines (2009)

A recent research study shows that using multimedia video in conjunction with traditional read aloud methods may improve the vocabulary growth of English language learners. An example of how to implement multimedia during classroom read-alouds is described.



By: Mandy Gregory (2008)

How do you create a classroom library that is both organized and enticing to young readers? Here a teacher illustrates how she set up a classroom library. She provides tips on acquiring books and materials, organizing the shelves, creating labels, and making it cozy.



By: Diane Barone, Todd E. Wright (2008)
This article describes how digital and media literacies are woven into a fourth-grade classroom. Background on how a teacher and school brought new literacies to students through the use of technology is revealed so that other teachers can engage in similar instructional support.

By: Regina G. Richards (2008)

We all use strategies throughout our day to remember the variety of facts and ideas we need to retain. It is valuable for teachers, therapists, and parents to understand the memory process in order to become better equipped to help our students understand and use strategies.



By: Sharon A. Gibson (2008)

This article describes the theory and procedures (purpose, format, teacher prompting, and assessment procedures) for small-group writing instruction. Guided writing lessons are intensive, small-group activities that help create instructional support and interaction between teacher and students during writing.



By: Thomas Toch, Robert Rothman (2008)

Comprehensive methods of evaluating teachers that avoid the typical "drive-by" evaluations can promote improvements in teaching.



By: Kristina Robertson (2008)

Getting information from a non-fiction text can be especially challenging for ELLs, who may not have had much experience working independently with expository texts. This article offers ways that teachers can help ELLs work effectively with non-fiction texts and includes strategies for introducing components, structure, and purpose of expository texts.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Riddles are an excellent way for kids to learn how to really listen to the sounds of words, understand that some words have more than one meaning, and how to manipulate words. And riddles are fun — a good incentive for thinking about words and reading.



By: University of Virginia Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning (2008)

The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) describes ten dimensions of teaching that are linked to student achievement and social development. Each dimension falls into one of three board categories: emotional support, classroom organization, and instructional support.



By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Human brains are naturally wired to speak; they are not naturally wired to read and write. With teaching, children typically learn to read at about age 5 or 6 and need several years to master the skill.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)

Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.



By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Although we may not be aware of it, we do not skip over words, read print selectively, or recognize words by sampling a few letters of the print, as whole language theorists proposed in the 1970s. Reading is accomplished with letter-by-letter processing of the word.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)

Phonological awareness is critical for learning to read any alphabetic writing system. And research shows that difficulty with phoneme awareness and other phonological skills is a predictor of poor reading and spelling development.



By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
English orthography, or the English spelling system, may not be as transparent or easy to spell as Spanish, Italian, or Serbo-Croatian, but it's not crazy! Most English word spellings can be explained and most English words do follow spelling patterns.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
English is a layer-cake language. Not only is it organized to represent sounds, syllables, and morphemes, but its spellings are derived from several languages that were amalgamated over hundreds of years due to political and social changes in Great Britain.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)

Learn the six types of syllables found in English orthography, why it's important to teach syllables, and the sequence in which students learn about both spoken and written syllables.



By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Familiarity with the five essential components (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) in core, comprehensive reading programs is necessary for all teachers of reading. Although all components are needed at all levels, different skills and activities are emphasized at different stages of reading development.

By: PBS Parents (2008)
While parents understand the importance of reading to children, it is often a struggle to read to two. How can parents negotiate the "book wars," when one child only wants to read chapter books and the other insists on reading picture books? What can parents do when one child wants to read about dinosaurs and the other wants to read about ballerinas?

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Dr. Robert Pianta, director of the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning at the University of Virginia, talks about the benefits and characteristics of a good preschool program. View transcript >

By: Dale S. Brown (2008)
The holiday season is a time for family togetherness, fun, and friendship. But children who struggle with social and behavioral problems can feel lonely and excluded during this happy time. This article gives you a dozen ways to help your child join the fun.

By: Marcy Zipke (2008)

Riddles are the perfect medium for learning how to manipulate language for many reasons, including students' familiarity with them and motivation for reading them. Here's how riddles can be used in the classroom to stimulate student's metalinguistic awareness.



By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)

Every child is unique and has an individual rate of development. This chart represents, on average, the age by which most children will accomplish skills in hearing, understanding, and talking.



By: Kathleen Rogers (2008)

How can parents help their children find books that are not "too hard" and not "too easy" but instead are "just right"? Here's some advice.



By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)

Answers to frequently asked questions on how to help children with communication disorders, particularly in regards to speaking, listening, reading, and writing.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Learn what to look for as your child's handwriting skills begin to develop, as well as some signs and symptoms of dysgraphia — a learning disability that affects a child's handwriting and ability to hold a pencil or crayon.



By: Susan M. Ebbers (2008)
Rather than introducing a new word in isolation, teachers should introduce students to a rich variety of words that share the same root. This approach should help diverse learners including English language learners, make important connections among vocabulary words within the same family, and transfer core ideas across content areas.

By: Project Appleseed (2008)
Does your school do a good job of reaching out to parents? Use this checklist to evaluate and improve parent-school partnerships.

By: Voice of America (2008)
This article describes the basic facts about dyslexia, a learning disability that most commonly affects reading, spelling, and writing.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Find out more about the different types of learning disabilities, how they're identified, and what types of instruction support students with LD.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Healthy hearing is critical to a child's speech and language development, communication, learning, and social development. Children who do not hear well are at an increased risk of becoming struggling readers. Here are some signals that may indicate a hearing problem.



By: Jerome J. Schultz (2008)
The director of Learning Lab at Lesley University, explains that dyslexia is regarded as a neurobiological condition that is genetic in origin, which means it can run in families.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2008)
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a complex subject and states and districts have a lot of discretion with the implementation of this three-step, research-based approach to intervention and placement. Learn about some of the common misconceptions of the RTI process and read about additional RTI web sources.

By: Jan Hasbrouck (2008)

Teachers do their best to improve students' fluency, but sometimes the information they have to work with is incomplete and, therefore, leads them down the wrong path. For example, silent reading or 'Round Robin' reading seem like good ways to improve fluency. But, in fact, increasing fluency requires more practice, more support, and more guided oral reading than either of these strategies can deliver.



By: Joyce Cooper-Kahn, Laurie Dietzel (2008)

Here are some strategies to help a child who does his or her homework, but doesn't turn it in.



By: Jan Hasbrouck (2008)

What should fluency instruction look like? And, what can teachers do to help students whose fluency is far behind their peers'? This article should help practitioners use of fluency-based assessments and select instructional practices.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2008)
With the range and variety of commercial software products on the shelves today, how can an educator or parent choose a program that will most benefit a particular student? Where are product reviews that can inform the decision?

By: Kristina Robertson (2008)

How can you hold an effective parent-teacher conference with the parents of English language learners if they can't communicate comfortably in English? This article provides a number of tips to help you bridge the language gap, take cultural expectations about education into account, and provide your students' parents with the information they need about their children's progress in school.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2008)

This Info Brief provides information to help parents find and obtain alternative sources of funding for classroom- or home-based assistive technology when funds are not available through a child’s school.



By: National Center for Technology Innovation, Center for Implementing Technology in Education (CITEd) (2008)

Get the answers to frequently asked questions about accessing e-text through the National Instructional Materials Access Center (NIMAC). Find out how to obtain e-text so that students with learning disabilities can get printed material in the format they need.



By: Kristina Robertson (2008)

As you teach content areas to ELLs of diverse backgrounds, you may find that they struggle to grasp the content, and that they approach the content from very different perspectives. Drawing on your students' background knowledge and experiences can be an effective way to bridge those gaps and make content more accessible. This article offers a number of suggestions to classroom teachers as they find ways to tap into the background knowledge that students bring with them.



By: E. Sutton Flynt, William G. Brozo (2008)

Concerns about how to build academic vocabulary and weave its instruction into curricula are common among classroom teachers. This article reviews the research and offers some practical suggestions for teachers.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Starting a home library for your child shows him/her how important books are. Having books of his/her own in a special place boosts the chance that your child will want to read even more. Here are some ideas for creating your own home library.



By: Ann-Marie Foucault (2008)

What is differentiated instruction and how can it help your child? This article helps parents understand and support differentiation in the classroom.



By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)

The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association offers these age-appropriate ways that parents can engage their young children to help develop speech and language abilities.



By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2008)

Get tips on how you can foster a sense of partnership with the teacher and administration to support your child's education.



By: Just Read, Florida! (2008)

Literacy centers offer meaningful learning experiences where students work independently or collaboratively to meet literacy goals.



By: Pre-K Now (2008)
Latino children make up the largest and most rapidly growing racial/ethnic minority population in the U.S. Find out how pre-K programs can play a key role in helping these children in school readiness and educational achievement.

By: Pre-K Now (2008)
When you walk into a high-quality pre-K classroom you immediately see learning occurring. The following elements are critical to providing the sense of purpose, organization, and excitement that creates the best results for children.

By: Pre-K Now (2008)
The state of pre-kindergarten varies across the country. This national snapshot is a good starting point for understanding what's happening in pre-K right now.

By: Kathy E. Stephens (2008)
Exposing children to a variety of informational text will stimulate development of background knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. In this article, take an imaginary trip to a children's museum and learn how to choose quality, high-interest informational books for young readers.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Parents love to know what's going on in their child's classroom. A weekly newsletter is a great way to keep the communication going. Check out our editable newsletter template. And get your students involved in preparing for back-to-school night with our "welcome to back-to-school night" flyer.



By: Susan Hall (2008)

How do parents know if their child's reading delay is a real problem or simply a "developmental lag?" How long should parents wait before seeking help if their child is struggling with reading? Susan Hall answers these questions.



By: U.S. Department of Education (2008)
The U.S. Education Department provides these tips for parents about how to be involved in your child's school, and what to do if problems arise.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Children are full of questions about the world around them, and summer is a perfect time to tap into your child's interests. Here are some ways to start a journey of discovery together.



By: Stan Paine (2008)

How can school leaders support school-wide reading initiatives? Here are keys to leading the way in the areas of reading curriculum, instruction, assessment, and motivation.



By: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2008)
This research brief from the Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement examines the research on teacher leadership and what it says about drawing on the skills of experienced teachers to facilitate school improvement.

By: Tony Vincent (2008)
Creating podcasts in the classroom has many educational benefits, including strengthening skills in research, writing, and collaboration — and podcasting is easy to do. This article walks you through the steps of preproduction, recording, postproduction, and publishing.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2008)

Spelling is a challenge for people with dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association provides a fact sheet explaining why people with dyslexia have trouble spelling, how to find out the reasons a particular child has this difficulty, and how to help children with dyslexia spell better.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Children who struggle with reading often need extra help. This help usually comes from the school, but some parents choose to look outside the school for professionals who can assess, diagnose, tutor, or provide other education services.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2008)
When dealing with a bureaucracy — and school districts are bureaucracies — you need to keep detailed records. Logs, journals, and calendars provide answers and support memories and testimonies. This article provides examples of how to keep a paper trail.

By: Afterschool Alliance (2008)
This brief describes how afterschool programs can contribute to student success by helping children's social and emotional development, avoidance of risky behaviors, improved school attendance, engagement in learning, and improved test scores and grades.

By: International Reading Association (2008)
The International Reading Association's position is that every child has a right to receive the best possible reading instruction, and has a set of 10 principles to help provide excellent reading instruction.

By: Rick Lavoie (2008)

As we head towards September and a new school year, here's advice from special education expert Rick Lavoie that may be helpful as you attempt to make special needs kids in your class feel warm, welcome, and wanted. Using the word SEPTEMBER, he shares nine concepts that can help you in this effort.



By: Alex Torrez, William Allan Kritsonis (2008)
The development of new teachers in hard-to-staff schools should be of the highest priority for principals, as stability is key to long-term school improvement. Here are some factors principals should remember when recruiting and retaining teachers.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Dads play a critical role in their children's literacy development by modeling reading, sharing stories, exploring the world together, and engaging in meaningful conversations that build critical thinking skills. Here are a few suggestions to help fathers strengthen their literacy connections with preschoolers.



By: Voice of America (2008)
Dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the brain's ability to process and understand the meaning of numbers. Learn about the symptoms and what can be done to help.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Dads play a critical role in their children's literacy development by modeling reading, sharing stories, exploring the world together, and engaging in meaningful conversations that build critical thinking skills.



By: Voice of America (2008)

Teachers and parents should suspect dysgraphia if a child's handwriting is unusually difficult to read. Find out more about this neurological problem that can cause physical pain as some children struggle to write.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Being a toddler is all about action. Encourage continued language developmentand interest in books and reading by keeping things lively and engaging. Everyday experiences are full of opportunities to engage in conversation and develop language skills. The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week.See what works best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
It's never too early to read to your baby. As soon as your baby is born, he or she starts learning. Just by talking to, playing with, and caring for your baby every day, you help your baby develop language skills necessary to become a reader. By reading with your baby, you foster a love of books and reading right from the start. The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See what works best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)

A child's success as a reader begins much earlier than the first day of school. Reading, and a love for reading, begins at home. Our one-page parent tips offer easy ways for parents to help kids become successful readers. Although we've divided these tips by age, many of them can be used with children at various ages and stages — we encourage you to choose the ones that work best for your child.



By: National Summer Learning Association (2008)

Early and sustained summer learning opportunities lead to higher graduation rates, better preparation for college, and positive effects on children's self-esteem, confidence, and motivation. High-quality summer programs keep students engaged in learning, teach them new skills, allow them to develop previously unseen talents, and foster creativity and innovation.



By: National Association of School Psychologists (2008)
In this statement, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) identifies the characteristics of students more likely to be retained and the impact of retention at the secondary school level, late adolescence, and early adulthood. NASP also provides a long list of alternatives to retention and social promotion.

By: International Reading Association (2008)
There are a number of current informal reading inventories — each has its strengths, limitations, and unique characteristics, which should be considered in order to best fit a teacher's needs.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)

Learning to speak two languages is like learning any other skill. To do it well, children need lots of practice, which parents can help provide. This American Speech-Language-Hearing Association brief gives information and tips for parents.



By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)

Anyone at any age can learn a second language after a first language is already established, but it takes a lot of practice. Second language acquisition often happens when a child who speaks a language other than English goes to school for the first time. This brief looks at the best way to teach a second language and how speech professionals can help.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Kindergarten is where most children learn to read and write. Though some kids can do this before entering kindergarten, it is not required or expected. Being ready for kindergarten means having well-developed preschool skills, and being academically, socially, and physically ready for the transition. Here are some signs that your child is ready for kindergarten.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Here are some ways parents can help relieve test anxiety, stress, and pressure, as well as a guide to interpreting your child's test results.



By: Christopher Gabrieli , Warren Goldstein (2008)
In this excerpt from the book Time to Learn: How a New School Schedule Is Making Smarter Kids, Happier Parents & Safer Neighborhoods, the authors discuss how a longer school day can support achievement in reading and math while providing a richer, broader curriculum. The book discusses extended day success stories in public schools throughout the country, the impact on teachers and families, and benefits for English language learners and children with learning disabilities.

By: Larry B. Silver, M.D. (2008)
If you think your child might have a learning disability, this article will help. Dr. Larry Silver tells parents the clues to look for in pre-school and elementary school children. Then the article talks about how to get a "psychoeducational evaluation" to find out for sure.

By: Angela McRae, John T. Guthrie (2008)

Using Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) or practices to encourage engagement, educators can advance the breadth and depth of students' reading by explicitly and systematically nourishing students' motivations as readers.



By: Regina G. Richards (2008)

Eli, a young boy, tells us what it is like to have dysgraphia. Regina Richards, a well-known expert on dysgraphia (and Eli's mom), explains how to help children who struggle with the challenges Eli describes. Practical techniques discussed include POWER: Prepare, Organize, Write, Edit, Revise.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

When engaging in writing, young children often mirror what they see around them; adults and older children writing lists, notes, text messaging. They are observing the way writing is used in our everyday lives. Here are some simple things families can do to support young children's writing.



By: Rick Lavoie (2008)

Teachers: How do you convince your principal, fellow teachers, and other school staff to help the student in your class who has a learning disability? Rick Lavoie, world-renowned expert, speaker, and author on teaching children with LD, tells you how to get your voice heard. Learn how to handle common road blocks and become a proactive and successful advocate in the hallways, the teacher's lounge, and the administrative suite.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Read early and read often. The early years are critical to developinga lifelong love of reading. It's never too early to begin reading to your child!The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child becomea happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See whatworks best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Play with letters, words, and sounds! Having fun with language helpsyour child learn to crack the code of reading. The tips below offersome fun ways you can help your child become a happy andconfident reader. Try a new tip each week. See what works best foryour child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Give your child lots of opportunities to read aloud. Inspire your young reader to practice every day! The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See what works best for your child.

By: Steve Graham, Karen R. Harris, Connie Loynachan (2008)

This list was created to help teachers know which spelling words should be taught to kids in grades 1–5. The list contains 850 words that account for 80 percent of the words children use in their writing — the ones they need to be able to spell correctly.



By: Access Center (2008)

Writing is a complex operation requiring knowledge of text structure, syntax, vocabulary, and topic, and sensitivity to audience needs; so it is not surprising that many teens find writing challenging. This article identifies the qualities of strong writing instruction, and offers advice to teachers for incorporating writing instruction into their practice, using tools like notebooks and journals, and sharing strategies that reinforce the importance of pre-writing and revision.



By: Colorín Colorado (2008)

Find out how you can support your child before and after taking a standardized test, as well as ways you can support your child's learning habits on a daily basis so that test day is not so stressful.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Every time you pair a book with an experience, you are giving your child an opportunity to learn more about their world. Find suggestions for books and corresponding activities to extend your preschooler's reading experiences.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Every time you pair a book with an experience, you are giving your child an opportunity to learn more about their world. Below are some suggestions for books and corresponding activities to extend your child's reading experiences.



By: Regina G. Richards (2008)

Teach your students to avoid the avoidance of writing. Learn how to lead them down the path of enthusiasm and self-confidence about writing through research-proven strategies.



By: Alliance for Excellent Education (2008)
Working conditions play a much larger role than retirement in explaining why teachers transfer, leave a class, or leave the profession. This brief looks at the research about teacher turnover, and finds that while teachers' decisions to stay or leave a particular school is contingent on a variety of factors, in all cases the key seems to lie in the level of success teachers encounter in raising their students' academic performances.

By: Regina G. Richards (2008)
This article discusses one component of writing mechanics — finesse with sound/symbol correspondence. It describes a method, called Memory Foundations for Reading, that can be used by a parent with a single child or a teacher with a group and which helps children use many senses to recall letter sounds.

By: The Access Center (2008)
Peer tutoring links high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement for structured learning. It promotes academic gains as well as social enhancement. This brief discusses three research-supported peer tutoring strategies: Cross-Age Tutoring; Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT).

By: Access Center (2008)
This brief provides an overview of computer-assisted instruction and looks at how writing software can help students with developing ideas, organizing, outlining, brainstorming, and minimizing the physical effort spent on writing so that students can pay attention to organization and content.

By: Access Center (2008)

Writing is a highly complex language skill. Without skilled, systematic instruction, many students — particularly those with disabilities — may not become proficient writers. At stake is access to the general education curriculum. This brief discusses developmental stages, why writing may pose particular challenges for students with disabilities, and what areas should be the focus for remediation.



By: Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS) at the University of Virginia (2008)

Different book leveling systems each have unique ways of describing the age- and grade-level appropriateness of books. This chart provides equivalency information across six leveling systems: Basal level/PALS, Guided Reading, DRA, Rigby PM, Reading Recovery, and Lexile.



By: Colorín Colorado (2008)

Find out why writing is so important in our lives, as well as practical suggestions for activities to help your child become a stronger writer.



By: Reading Rockets (2008)

Many New Year's resolutions focus on developing healthy habits. Here's one that is important to make and keep: provide a regular diet of books and reading for your preschooler. Try this menu of reading activities.



By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2008)

Children with executive function problems have difficulty with planning, organizing and managing time and space, and weakness with "working memory." Learn more about executive function, how it affects learning, and strategies to help children in school and at home.



By: Rachael Walker (2007)
It is a new year according to the calendar, but in most schools, we've just reached the half-way point. Resolve to be involved in your children's education in new ways this year. Studies show that kids whose parents are involved in their education have better grades, a better attitude toward school, and more appropriate school behavior than those with less involved parents.

By: Zach Miners, Angela Pascopella (2007)
It might seem that evaluating information online (just one form of "new literacy") and reading a book (more of a foundational literacy) are pretty much the same thing. But there are differences that, when brought into the classroom and incorporated into curricula, are enriching the educational experiences of many K-12 students. Many administrators are beginning to recognize the need to revise their districts' media skills instruction.

By: Barbara K. Strassman, Trisha O'Connell (2007)

Help students engage in reading and writing by asking them to write captioning for audio-less video clips. This article contains step-by-step instructions for using the technique as well as links to digital media and suggested teaching ideas.



By: Mary Ann Zehr (2007)
Technology that encourages interactive learning can be an effective tool for teaching English language learners, even if the technology is not specifically designed particularly for ELLs.

By: Regina Boulware-Gooden, Suzanne Carreker, Ann Thornhill, R. Malatesha Joshi (2007)

The use of metacognitive strategies helps students to "think about their thinking" before, during, and after they read.



By: Capstone Press (2007)

Are your students drowning in information, misinformation and downright bunk? Are information literacy skills tested in your state? Teaching information literacy skills has never been more important. But it's easier said than done. As teacher-librarians, how do we teach those critical, all-important information literacy skills in ways that capture and hold student interest?



By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Studies show that screening English language learners for abilities in phonological processing, letter knowledge, and word and text reading will help identify those who are progressing well and/or who require additional instructional support.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Most scholars believe that instruction in academic English ' done early, consistently, and simultaneously across content areas ' can make a difference in English learners' ability to understand the core curriculum.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Providing small-group reading instruction in five core reading elements (phonological awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) can really help English language learners in the elementary grades.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
One way to create effective literacy instruction for English learners in the elementary grades is to provide extensive and varied vocabulary instruction.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Teachers of English learners should devote approximately 90 minutes a week to instructional activities in which pairs of students at different ability levels or proficiencies work together on academic tasks in a structured fashion.

By: National Summer Learning Association (2007)
Informal literacy experiences often serve to shape young people's identity as readers and writers as much as or more than formal schooling.Community and family support can emphasize the importance of reading and writing, build confidence, influence young people's literacy habits, and encourage youth to seek out ways to engage in literate activities. Through a renewed national push for literacy on all levels, both families and community members have diverse opportunities in which to impact students' literacy skills.This article offers strategies to develop community engagement.

By: Kristina Robertson (2007)

As you teach content areas to ELLs of diverse backgrounds, you may find that they struggle to grasp the content, and that they approach the content from very different perspectives. Drawing on your students' background knowledge and experiences, can be an effective way to bridge those gaps and to make the content more accessible. This article offers a number of suggestions to classroom teachers as they find ways to tap into the background knowledge that students bring with them.



By: National Council of Teachers of English (2007)
Because success with technology depends largely upon critical thinking and reflection, teachers with relatively little technological skill can provide useful instruction. But schools must support these teachers by providing professional development and up-to-date technology for use in classrooms.

By: Newspaper Association of America Foundation (2007)
Newspapers expand the curriculum with an unlimited amount of information to use as background for learning activities. Discover new ways to use the newspaper in your language arts studies, with these activities from the Newspaper Association of America.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
Learn to develop the evidence you need to support your belief that your child is not receiving the right help in school. Peter and Pamela Wright, from Wrightslaw, tell you how to interpret and chart your child's test scores, graph your child's progress, and successfully communicate with the educators who make decisions about your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

During the holiday season, consider adding some new traditions for your family that will make meaningful memories and strengthen foundations for reading and learning success.



By: Rick Lavoie (2007)
Many of the adults in your child's life are unfamiliar with learning disorders in general, or your child's unique pattern of strengths and limitations. Developing a one- to three-page dossier that provides useful information about your child can help their babysitters, coaches, teachers, bus drivers, school support staff, neighbors, and relatives understand their limitations.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Focus on reading readiness and enjoy winter holidays at the same time with these simple activities you can incorporate into your preschooler's daily routine.



By: PACER Center (2007)
This overview from the PACER Center walks parents through each step of the special education process, describing what happens from the time a child is referred for evaluation through the development of an individualized education program (IEP).

By: National Center for Family Literacy (2007)
Do you enjoy reading? Do you look at the newspaper? Read magazines? Go to the library? Chances are, if you do any of these activities, your preschool child is on his way to becoming a reader.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

The home is the child's first classroom and parents are the first teachers. Parents who read to their children everyday and talk about what they are reading together promote a joy of reading and literacy achievement. How can teachers encourage reading at home and support the role of parents as educators? One way is through the use of our reading adventure packs — a theme-based collection of books and related interactive activities that kids bring home from school to share with their family.



By: National Center for Education Statistics (2007)
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) — a.k.a. The Nation's Report Card — is a nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. This article contains some of the results of the most recent NAEP assessment in reading and compares them to results from assessments in 2005 and in the first year data were available, usually 1992.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Parent-teacher conferences are a great opportunity for families to sit down one-on-one with your child's teacher and talk about school progress. Here are some tips to make the most of this time.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Some preschools schedule meetings during the year to talk about your child's progress. Here are some tips to make the most of those meetings.



By: Suzanne Irujo (2007)

In this article, a seasoned ELL teacher synthesizes her own classroom experience and the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth to make recommendations for effective literacy instruction of ELL students.



By: Ellen Delisio (2007)
Hours of test preparation, especially in underperforming schools, has left little time for electives or even some of the un-tested basic subjects. Adding time to the school day and year has helped some schools improve their scores and flesh out their curriculums.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2007)
Effective communication is essential for building school-family partnerships. It constitutes the foundation for all other forms of family involvement in education.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

As a parent of a beginning reader, it's important to support your child's reading efforts in a positive way and help them along the reading path. Here's a little information about beginning readers, and a few pointers to keep in mind.



By: Dale S. Brown, Karen Ford (2007)

Concrete suggestions for teachers who want to communicate well with all of their students, especially English language learners and students with learning disabilities.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Even the youngest child is somewhere on the path to becoming a reader. As a parent, it's important to support your child's efforts in a positive way and help him or her along the reading path. Here's a little information about emergent readers, and a few pointers to keep in mind.



By: Paula Kluth, Kelly Chandler-Olcott (2007)

Discover 20 ideas for including all students in classroom read alouds. These suggestions may work for students who need to fidget during whole-class instruction, those who need materials to keep focused, and those who require alternative ways of demonstrating attention, engagement, and interest.



By: International Dyslexia Association (2007)

Do you think your child or student might have dyslexia? This fact sheet provides a definition of dyslexia, symptoms, prevalence, signs, and effects, as well as ways to help your child.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Preschool provides a wonderful opportunity for your child to make new friends, socialize, and learn from an adult. Starting preschool is an exciting (and sometimes nervous!) time for little ones and parents. A few tips might help you and your child get off on the right foot.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Back to School is an exciting (and sometimes nervous!) time for students and parents. A few tips might help you and your child get off on the right foot.



By: Lucy Steiner, Julie Kowal (2007)
Many school districts have adopted instructional coaching as a model for teachers' professional development. This brief offers guidance on how school leaders can tailor the most promising coaching strategies to the needs of their schools.

By: National Center on Education and the Economy (2007)

America's approach to education has lagged behind as industry and technology have continued to advance. To truly prepare students for the 21st century workforce, and to remain competitive in the global economy, the National Center on Education and the Economy has ten policy recommendations for America's schools.



By: Colorín Colorado (2007)
Knowing vocabulary words is key to reading comprehension. The more words a child knows, the better he or she will understand the text. Using a variety of effective teaching methods will increase the student's ability to learn new words.

By: Colorín Colorado (2007)
Social English, or the language of conversation, may develop very quickly, but mastering academic English, the language of school, can take years. Use these tips to lead students toward full language proficiency.

By: Colorín Colorado (2007)

Cognates are words in two languages that share a similar meaning, spelling, and pronunciation. For Spanish-speaking ELLs, cognates are an obvious bridge to the English language.



By: Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), LD OnLine (2007)

If your child cannot read their textbooks, they need digital copies of their books. Schools now can use National Instructional Material Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) to get e-text. Learn the details that will help you advocate for your child so they can use NIMAS. And learn where to find the publishers and producers that provide e-text.



By: Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), LD OnLine (2007)

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Interesting experiences give kids a broader framework for new information they might encounter in books, and when kids have lots of experiences to draw on, they have a better chance of making a connection with what they read! Help your child build background knowledge this summer with these activities.



By: Lea M. McGee, Judith Schickedanz (2007)

Research has demonstrated that the most effective read-alouds are those where children are actively involved asking and answering questions and making predictions, rather than passively listening. This article describes in detail a technique for a three-step interactive read-aloud using sophisticated storybooks.



By: Kristina Robertson (2007)

Libraries today have changed in a number of ways to meet the demands of our modern society, but their underlying purpose for children is still to help them discover the joy of reading. As summer peaks, many local libraries advertise special summer reading programs and activities to keep children enthusiastic about reading.



By: David Gordon (2007)

Put together a summer listening program for your child. Listening is an engaging way to learn, so your child may love listening to books and other written documents. Have them listen to music and stage plays, comedy routines, and other works. Point out background sounds, such as the way the peppy tune on a sound track adds fun and humor to an adventure tale. Learning to listen is particularly helpful to children with learning disabilities.



By: Mary Beth Klotz, Andrea Canter (2007)

Learn what questions to ask about Response to Intervention (RTI), an approach to helping struggling learners that is gaining momentum in schools across the country. This article from the National Association of School Psychologists tells you the most important features of the process, key terms, and RTI's relationship to special education evaluation.



By: FPG Child Development Institute (2007)

Can teachers and parents of preschoolers identify learning problems early enough to prevent problems later in school? The Recognition & Response model helps adults know what to look for and how to help, so that later remediation and special education may not be necessary.



By: Rob Kemp (2007)
Bedtime stories aren't just for tiny tots: older children enjoy them, too. Here are some tips.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Parents have a growing array of options in choosing a school. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001; the rapid growth of the charter school movement; the increasing number of states enacting voucher, scholarship, and tax credit programs; the expansion of privately funded scholarship programs for low-income children; and the growing acceptance of homeschooling have all increased the choices available to families. This article describes the different types of schools that may be available in your community.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
How do you pick the best school for your child? The following sections have questions for you to consider as you go through the process of choosing a school for your child. Remember, you are looking for a school that will make the educational experience for your child and you as rewarding as possible

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
When an advocate negotiates with the school on a special needs child's behalf, the odds are increased that the child will get an appropriate education. Learn who can advocate, what they do, and how you can get started advocating for your child.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)

Here are a dozen simple strategies to help your children keep the academic skills they learned during the school year. Support them as they read. Give them material that is motivating — and some of it should be easy. Help them enjoy books and feel pleasure — not pressure — from reading. The summer should be a relaxed time where their love of learning can flower.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Susan B. Neuman served as the U.S. Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education where she helped establish the Reading First and Early Reading First programs. She is a professor in Educational Studies at the University of Michigan, specializing in early literacy development, and former director of the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Ability (CIERA).

By: National Literacy Trust (2007)

The U.K.'s National Literacy Trust offers ideas that schools and nonprofit organizations can implement to get fathers involved in their children's reading.



By: Colorín Colorado (2007)
An English language learner may not have an advanced English vocabulary, but with the right kind of curriculum and instruction, teachers may be surprised at the knowledge ELLs can gain. Science lends itself well to developing ELL students' language and content knowledge because there are so many opportunities for hands-on learning and observation.

By: The Center for Public Education (2007)
How much homework is too much? Not enough? Who should get it? These are just a few of the questions that have been debated over the years. While the research produces mixed results, there are some findings that can help inform decisions about homework.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Most words in a child's vocabulary come from everyday encounters with language. Children pick up language from books, media, and conversations with the people in their lives. Here are some ways you can increase your child's vocabulary and background knowledge, and strengthen the foundation for their reading success.



By: Maryann Mraz, Timothy V. Rasinski (2007)
Do you spend most of the fall reviewing what was taught last spring? Help prevent summer reading loss by finding out why it happens and encouraging family literacy while kids are at home for the summer.

By: Scholastic, Inc. (2007)
Your child walks like you, talks like you, and absorbs everything you do. So set the right example when it comes to reading. If you want your child to be a good reader, be one yourself!

By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Reading over the summer not only keeps your child from losing ground, but actually improves skills for the coming year. Here are some suggestions to keep a book in your child's hands over the summer months.



By: Roxanne F. Hudson, Leslie High, Stephanie Al Otaiba (2007)

The identification of a child with dyslexia is a difficult process, but there are ways that parents and teachers can learn more about the reading difficulty and support the child's learning.



By: Lynn S. Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs (2007)
Use Curriculum-Based Measurement to make sure students are on track for academic success by charting their trajectory of improvement all the way through the school year. CBM calculates rate of improvement during the first month of school and determines how much a student will need to improve each month to reach benchmark goals.

By: My Child magazine (2007)

Letter writing can be fun, help children learn to compose written text, and provide handwriting practice — and letters are valuable keepsakes. This guide was written for England's "Write a Letter Week" and contains activities to help children ages 5–9 put pen to paper and make someone's day with a handwritten letter.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Nursery rhymes are important for young children because they help develop an ear for our language. Both rhyme and rhythm help kids hear the sounds and syllables in words, which helps kids learn to read! Here are some activities and recommended poetry books to aid your child's developing poetry, rhyming, and rhythm skills.



By: Rotary International, International Reading Association (2007)
How can volunteers help build children's literacy in their communities? Rotary International and IRA developed these questionnaires and teachers' wish list to help you determine the right literacy project for your community.

By: John T. Guthrie, Angela McRae, Susan Lutz Klauda (2007)
Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) teaches children reading comprehension through the integration of science and reading. Learn more about how CORI aims enhances students' reading engagement in order to increase reading ability.

By: The Access Center (2007)

The literacy-rich environment emphasizes the importance of speaking, reading, and writing in the learning of all students. This involves the selection of materials that will facilitate language and literacy opportunities; reflection and thought regarding classroom design; and intentional instruction and facilitation by teachers and staff.



By: Kathleen A.J. Mohr, Eric S. Mohr (2007)
Despite the need to use and develop their English-language proficiency, English-language learners (ELLs) are often quiet during classroom discussions. The Response Protocol was developed to help teachers elicit and support the oral interactions of ELL students.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)
Three research based practices help students with learning disabilities improve their writing. Read this interview with Steve Graham, author of Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High School who explains how you can help your students succeed in communicating through the written word.

By: Victor Chudowsky, Naomi Chudowsky (2007)

One of the toughest parts of NCLB for local school districts is creating an accountability plan that works. While school districts have made progress in accountability over the last five years, they have also encountered great obstacles, outlined here.



By: Lynn Liontos (2007)

Did you know that kids whose parents are involved in their education have better grades, a better attitude toward school, and more appropriate school behavior than those with less involved parents? Consider trying a few of these tips — and make a big difference!



By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)

Parents — you are your child's most important teacher! Using a few of these ideas, you can help your child enter the classroom ready to read.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)

Favorite stories get shared many times over. Here's some advice about how to find a good children's book and what to do once you're reading together.



By: GreatSchools Editorial Staff (2007)

If you're thinking of hiring a private specialist to test your child for a learning disability, here are some key questions to ask yourself and the prospective evaluator.



By: Daniel T. Willingham (2007)
Learning critical thinking skills can only take a student so far. Critical thinking depends on knowing relevant content very well and thinking about it, repeatedly. Here are five strategies, consistent with the research, to help bring critical thinking into the everyday classroom.

By: Daniel T. Willingham (2006)

Knowledge does much more than just help students hone their thinking skills: It actually makes learning easier. Knowledge is not only cumulative, it grows exponentially. Those with a rich base of factual knowledge find it easier to learn more — the rich get richer.



By: Daniel T. Willingham (2006)

Students often think they understand a body of material and, believing that they know it, stop trying to learn more. But come test time, it turns out they really don't know the material very well at all. Can cognitive science tell us anything about why students are commonly mistaken about what they know and don't know? Are there any strategies teachers can use to help students better estimate what they know?



By: Daniel T. Willingham (2006)

How does the mind work — and how does it learn? Teachers' instructional decisions are based on a mix of theories learned in teacher education, trial and error, craft knowledge, and gut instinct. Such gut knowledge often serves us well, but is there anything sturdier to rely on?



By: Partnership for Learning (2006)

Get the basics on the benefits, challenges and costs of different kinds of tutoring services: private, tutoring centers, online tutors, and free Title I supplemental services.



By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)

Tutoring offers kids the special one-on-one attention that busy teachers often can't provide. From simplehomework help to intensive work on basic skills, tutoring can offer just the boost your childneeds to succeed.



By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
When you see your child struggling, you want to jump in and help, but sometimes your instincts and desire aren't enough. When your child has trouble with schoolwork and a tutor is necessary, one of the biggest roadblocks to getting help is money.

By: Gina Carrier (2006)

In the last few years, an alarm has sounded throughout the nation's middle and high schools: too many students cannot read well. It isn't that they don't know their ABCs or how to read words. It's that they cannot understand or explain what they're reading. Johnny can read, but he doesn't understand.



By: Carole McGraw (2006)
Whether your child is lost in a haze of elementary grammar rules, sinking fast in a jumble of Newton's laws in middle school, or lost in the details of an AP biology class, you need help quickly, before your child falls way behind the class and never recovers. So, what exactly can you do....now?

By: Glenda Thorne (2006)
Effective and efficient memory is critical for reading and school success. Here are 10 strategies to help children develop their memories.

By: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2006)
What are the factors that can improve school districts? This research brief from the Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement reviewed more than 80 research articles that investigated the attributes of schools and districts that have improved over time and found 13 themes or characteristics common to them.

By: Kristina Robertson (2006)
Language learning offers a unique and exciting opportunity to integrate music. Many people have had the experience of learning a world language and singing simple, silly songs in class. The introduction of music provides a light-hearted and fun way to interact with another language and culture.

By: National Association of School Psychologists (2006)
School psychologists working in districts that use Response to Intervention (RTI) can offer expertise at many levels, from system-wide program design to specific assessment and intervention efforts with individual students.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2006)

The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities developed an overview on screening, diagnosing and serving children age four or younger. The document was developed for researchers, administrators, and people who need an academic overview.



By: American Federation of Teachers (2006)
There are over two dozen individually administered screening tools produced for the primary grades. Considering their subject matter and purpose, schools must decide which assessment best fits their needs. This article gives an overview of the screening tools and the kind of information they provide.

By: Jan Hasbrouck (2006)

Learn what reading fluency is, why it is critical to make sure that students have sufficient fluency, how we should assess fluency, and how to best provide practice and support for all students.



By: Kristina Robertson (2006)
ELL students learn new words everyday, and it's essential that they have a deep understanding of what those words mean. Without comprehension, new words are useless. The key to helping ELL students succeed is to give them explicit instruction in the academic language of the content they are learning in class. This article offers some strategies and resources for getting started!

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)

By: Deborah Taub (2006)

Professional school counselors can be more effective in their work with parents of students with disabilities — as well as with the students themselves, their teachers, and other students — if they understand parent perspectives. Parents' areas of concern are described, and implications for school counselors are discussed.



By: Andres Barona, Maryann Santos de Barona (2006)

This article discusses the challenges in providing psychoeducational services to the rapidly increasing minority populations in the U.S. and offers a brief elaboration of the role and function of school counselors and school psychologists and how they can meet the mental health and educational needs of this large and growing population.



By: Amy Milsom (2006)

The school experiences of students with disabilities can be positively or negatively influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of students and staff and by general school policies. School counselors can take the lead in assessing school climate in relation to students with disabilities and initiating interventions or advocating for change when appropriate. This article provides an overview of factors to consider in creating positive school experiences for students with disabilities and suggestions for intervention efforts.



By: Craig Jerald (2006)
It is possible for educators to make better choices about how and when to teach to the test than the alarmist newspaper articles and editorials would seem to suggest. This article from the Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement aims to help readers think beyond simple compliance with federal law or basic implementation of programs.

By: Craig Jerald (2006)
Walk into any truly excellent school and you can feel it almost immediately — a calm, orderly atmosphere that hums with an exciting, vibrant sense of purposefulness. This is a positive school culture, the kind that improves educational outcomes.

By: Lia Salza (2006)

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
Studies have indicated that as many as 40-75% of children with specific language impairment will have problems in learning to read. This article offers tips for parents and educators to help learners develop their language skills.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
Students must pass high stakes tests to graduate high school. These tests are a major barrier for students with learning disabilities who often do not test well. Accommodations can help. Learn how to help children with learning disabilities do well on these tests.

By: Jan Hasbrouck (2006)

Screening, diagnosing, and progress monitoring are essential to making sure that all students become fluent readers — and the words-correct per-minute (WCPM) procedure can work for all three. Here's how teachers can use it to make well-informed and timely decisions about the instructional needs of their students.



By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
When a doctor develops a treatment plan for a sick child, the doctor uses objective data from diagnostic tests. Your child's individualized education program is similar to a medical treatment plan, and you need objective tests to know that your child is acquiring reading, writing, and arithmetic skills.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
This article explains how to consider your child's present levels of academic performance and use baseline data to develop goals and objectives for a individualized education program.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Too often annual goals listed in an individualized education program are not specific and measurable. Find out how to avoid this pitfall.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Learn what makes a strong individualized education program (IEP) and the five components of a SMART IEP.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Individualized education program (IEP) goals cannot be broad statements about what a child will accomplish. Goals that cannot be measured are non-goals. Learn how to help the IEP team devise specific, measurable, realistic goals.

By: Communities in Schools (2006)
From Communities in Schools, this article profiles five after-school programs that have been shown to be effective in rigorous independent evaluations.

By: Communities in Schools (2006)
Communities In Schools describes essential elements of good after-school programs so that research findings are accessible to practitioners. Included are key elements of program implementation.

By: Mary Amato (2006)

Does your child want to write to his favorite author? Children's book author Mary Amato explains how.



By: Daniel T. Willingham (2006)

Learning happens when we connect new information to what we already know. When children have limited knowledge about the world, they have a smaller capacity to learn more about it. Here are four ways teachers can build content knowledge that will expand the opportunity for students to forge new connections — and make them better independent readers and learners.



By: West Bloomfield Township Public Library (2006)

Talking to your child helps expand vocabulary, develop background knowledge, and inspire a curiosity about the world – all of which help with learning to read! Here are some simple activities you can do at home to get your child ready to read.



By: West Bloomfield Township Public Library (2006)

Don't forget to add non-fiction books to your reading routine! Kids can follow their own interests and learn about the world around them by reading about bugs, dinosaurs, or outer space. You can also use the information in books to do activities at home – make green eggs and ham like Sam I Am, or a newspaper hat like Curious George!



By: Mel Levine (2006)
As we discover more about how students learn and how different minds learn differently, our schools have a golden opportunity to increase the percentage of their students who experience true academic success.

By: The Center for Public Education (2006)
Like class size reduction, increasing instructional time has lots of common-sense appeal as mechanism for raising student achievement. But more time in school can be costly. These key lessons summarize the current research on different approaches to organizing school time and schedules, beginning with the obvious question: Does more time make a difference?

By: The Center for Public Education (2006)
What have we learned from the research on pre-K? What does a quality pre-k program look like? Key lessons help answer these questions and more.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)

One of the most misunderstood topics in reading instruction involves the extent to which children should be encouraged to rely on context cues in reading.



By: Mary Ruth Coleman, Virginia Buysse, Jennifer Neitzel (2006)

Learn about an early intervening system being developed for young children, called Recognition and Response, designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities as early as possible, beginning at age 3 or 4, before they experience school failure and before they are referred for formal evaluation and possible placement in special education.



By: Susan Neuman (2006)

Background knowledge is crucial to a child's academic success. Young children, especially those from at-risk communities, need broad and deep exposure to informational text and rich vocabulary in order to develop more complex thinking skills.



By: Shutta Crum (2006)

Use picture books to teach young writers how to organize plot logically. This article includes examples of basic plot structures, along with picture books that use those structures.



By: Geoffrey Alan (2006)
What can afterschool programs offer that the regular school day can't? To build literacy skills and school achievement, think outside the classroom.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
Children with vocabulary weaknesses are especially vulnerable to difficulties with reading comprehension from the middle elementary grades onward. Vocabulary weaknesses may affect school achievement in many areas beyond reading, including written expression, mathematics, and performance in content subjects such as social studies and science.

By: Dorothy Strickland, Shannon Riley-Ayers (2006)

By: Brenda Krick-Morales (2006)
Word problems in mathematics often pose a challenge because they require that students read and comprehend the text of the problem, identify the question that needs to be answered, and finally create and solve a numerical equation. Many ELLs may have difficulty reading and understanding the written content in a word problem.

By: Kathleen McLane (2006)
Is your school planning to implement student progress monitoring (SPM)? Are you thinking of using it in your classroom? If so, consider a number of factors to make SPM an integral part of classroom activities, rather than a series of isolated assessments unconnected to other parts of the learning experience. This brief offers some suggestions on how to use SPM in an integrated way.

By: Kathleen McLane (2006)
Not only must schools teach academic skills, but they must measure how successful each child is acquiring these skills. One way to do this is Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), which uses brief, timed tests made up of academic material taken from the child's school curriculum.

By: Kathleen McLane (2006)
Progress monitoring can give you and your child's teacher information that can help your child learn more and learn faster, and help you make better decisions about the type of instruction that will work best with your child.

By: Kathleen McLane (2006)
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), which teachers use on an ongoing basis to track students' progress toward annual goals, offers a number of benefits to parents and students, as well as teachers.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents examples of accommodations that allow students with learning disabilities to show what they know without giving them an unfair advantage. Accommodations are divided into the following categories: how information is presented to the student, how the student can respond, timing of tests and lessons, the learning environment, and test scheduling.

By: Thomas S. May (2006)

Genetic differences in the brain make learning to read a struggle for children with dyslexia. Luckily, most of our brain development occurs after we're born, when we interact with our environment. This means that the right teaching techniques can actually re-train the brain, especially when they happen early.



By: Reading Rockets (2006)
Find ways to read, write, and tell stories together with your child.Always applaud your young reader and beginning story writer! Thetips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become ahappy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See whatworks best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2006)
Read about it, talk about it, and think about it! Find ways for yourchild to build understanding, the ultimate goal of learning how toread. The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your childbecome a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. Seewhat works best for your child.

By: Linda Diamond, Linda Gutlohn (2006)
Consider some excellent lesson models for teaching vocabulary, explaining idioms, fostering word consciousness, instruction for English Language Learners, and mnemonic strategies.

By: American Psychological Association (2006)

Reading instruction changes the brain. New before- and after- images that show what happens to children's brains after they get systematic, research-based reading instruction show that the right teaching methods can actually normalize brain function and thereby improve a child's reading skills.



By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)

The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents a basic fact sheet on dyscalculia, a term which refers to a wide range of learning disabilities involving math. The following questions are answered: What are the effects of dyscalculia in early childhood, during the school years, and on teenagers and adults? What are the warning signs? How is dyscalculia identified and treated?



By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
For English language learners, proper identification of learning disabilities can be crucial to success. The author offers practical tips for identifying learning disabilities and developing appropriate accommodations.

By: Nicole Strangeman, Chuck Hitchcock, Tracey Hall, Grace Meo (2006)

Helping struggling readers in the general classroom is a challenge, but The Access Center offers a solution. By using Response-to-Instruction’s tiered approach and Universal Design’s equal access philosophy, you can bridge the gap so that you are truly leaving no child behind.



By: Barbara J. Ehren, Judith Montgomery, Judy Rudebusch, Kathleen Whitmire (2006)

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can play a number of important roles in using RTI to identify children with disabilities and provide needed instruction to struggling students in both general education and special education settings. But these roles will require some fundamental changes in the way SLPs engage in assessment and intervention activities.



By: Society for Neuroscience (2006)

By: CAST (2006)

Response to Instruction (RTI) and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are two great ideas for making sure the curriculum reaches all students. Learn about how you can implement these ideas as part of your regular routine in the general education classroom.



By: Amy Hines (2006)
Educators may find timelines a useful strategy for a variety of educational purposes. They can be used to record events from a story or a history lesson in a sequential format. They can help students keep events in chronological order as they write summaries.

By: Center for Implementing Technology in Education (CITEd) (2006)

Technology — and especially the subset of technology tools known as assistive technology (AT) — can be an effective element of the writing curriculum for students with disabilities. Since writing is so integral to school success, AT is often indicated to assist students with disabilities.



By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing abilities. Learn the warning signs and strategies that can help. There are techniques for teaching and accommodating early writers, young students, or help yourself if you struggle with dysgraphia.

By: Mel Levine (2006)

School is not the only arena in which children's minds need to be nurtured and expanded. Equally vital is the kind of education and brain building that a student undergoes at home.



By: Jacob Milner (2006)
Handheld formative assessment technology provides teachers with a virtually real-time picture on which students need help, where they need it, and how the teachers can help best.

By: E. D. Hirsch, Jr. (2006)

According to author E. D. Hirsch, Jr., the only useful way to prepare for a reading test is indirectly by becoming a good reader of a broad range of texts, an ability that requires broad general knowledge.



By: Kate Walsh, Deborah Glaser, Danielle Dunne Wilcox (2006)
When some children are learning to read, they catch on so quickly that it appears effortless. It does not seem to matter what reading curriculum or teachers they encounter, for they arrive at school already possessing the important foundational skills. For other children, though, the path to literacy is far more difficult and by no means assured. It matters very much what curriculum their schools use and who their first teachers are.

By: Louisa Moats (2006)

Many young readers are puzzled by the rules and exceptions of spelling. Research shows that learning to spell and learning to read rely on much of the same underlying knowledge. Learn more about the relationships between letters and sounds and how a proper understanding of spelling mechanics can lead to improved reading.



By: Elizabeth Crawford, Joseph K. Torgesen (2006)
Improving the effectiveness of interventions for struggling readers requires a school-level system for early identification of 'at risk' students and then providing those students with intensive interventions. Learn from Reading First schools with demonstrated success in reaching struggling readers.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)

By: G. Emerson Dickman (2006)
RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach, rather it is a process that aims to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction that works best for students. This article provides a quick overview of RTI as it relates to reading.

By: National Institute for Literacy (2006)

The goal of phonics instruction is to help children learn the alphabetic principle — the idea that letters represent the sounds of spoken language — and that there is an organized, logical, and predictable relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.



By: National Institute for Literacy (2006)

Find out what the scientific research says about effective phonics instruction. It begins with instruction that is systematic and explicit.



By: Glenda Thorne, Alice Thomas, Candy Lawson (2005)

Here are 15 tactics that may help children enhance attention and manage attention problems.



By: AARP (2005)
Reading with your grandchild is one of the most important activities you can do together. This article will give you some tips as to how to make the most of this special time.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2005)
Children pick up languages much more easily than adults. This article answers some common questions about raising bilingual children.

By: Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Alejandro Brice (2005)

How can you tell when a student has a language-learning disability and when he or she is merely in the normal process of acquiring a second language?



By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2005)

Spelling difficulties can be enduring in individuals with reading disabilities, sometimes even after reading has been successfully remediated. Addressing spelling difficulties is important, because poor spelling can hamper writing and can convey a negative impression even when the content of the writing is excellent.



By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
What's typical development? And what can parent do to be sure their child is getting the stimulation he or she needs? Here's a list of what to look for as a child learns and grows from infancy to preschool.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)

These activities are for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children to learn and to develop the skills necessary for success in school — and in life.



By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Here are some activities designed to be fun for both you and your toddler as well as to help your young child (ages 1 to 3) gain the skills needed to get ready for school.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Here are three activities, designed to be fit easily into parents' daily routines, that can help babies learn and develop.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)

By the time they begin kindergarten, children in the United States have watched an average of 4,000 hours of TV. Here are some tips that will help you monitor and guide your child's TV viewing.



By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2005)
Less is known about the components of effective mathematics instruction than about the components of effective reading instruction, because research in math is less extensive than in reading.

By: Rosa Lizardi (2005)
All students learn in different ways, and ELLs are no exception. Creating opportunities for hands-on learning in the classroom can provide another way for students to grasp difficult concepts.

By: Sebastian Wren (2005)

This article illustrates the difference between being able to decode words on a page and being able to derive meaning from the words and the concepts they are trying to convey.



By: Florida Education Association (2005)
These tips on how to keep your classroom running smoothly have been gathered from teachers around the world.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)

Named "One of America's Top Doctors," Dr. Shaywitz is professor of pediatrics at Yale University School of Medicine and author of the bestseller Overcoming Dyslexia. On January 27, 2005, Reading Rockets hosted an online discussion with Dr. Shaywitz, who answered questions about dyslexia and other reading difficulties and responded to parents' concerns.



By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
Assessment accommodations help people with learning disabilities display their skills accurately on examinations. Teachers, learn how to test the true knowledge of your students. Don't test their ability to write quickly if you want to see their science skills! Parents, these pointers will help you assure that your children are tested fairly.

By: Candace Cortiella (2005)

This article provides an overview of the federal No Child Left Behind law and includes information to help parents use provisions of NCLB to ensure that their child has access to appropriate instruction.



By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
If a Title I school repeatedly underperforms, federal law provides opportunities for students to change schools or obtain additional instructional support. This parent advocacy brief looks at the information parents of students with disabilities need to know and understand in order to maximize these options.

By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
The No Child Left Behind law requires each school test students in Reading/Language Arts & Math each year in grades 3-8, and at least once more in grades 10-12. In some cases, children eligible for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) services may be able to access testing accommodations or even alternate tests, but parents need to fully understand the implications and potential consequences of participation in the various testing options.

By: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2005)
The most influential educational leaders are the principal and superintendent, and their leadership is inextricably linked to student performance. This article looks at the basics of good leadership and offers practical suggestions.

By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2005)
Parents should be aware of ways to make the most of learning opportunities for their babies and preschoolers. The National Association for the Education of Young Children provides these guidelines to help parents identify high-quality early care and education programs for young children.

By: Joanne Meier, Karen Freck (2005)
Children come to our classrooms from so many different ability levels and backgrounds. As a teacher, it's important to recognize and know what to do to help a struggling reader.

By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2005)
Children take their first critical steps toward learning to read and write very early in life. Long before they can exhibit reading and writing production skills, they begin to acquire some basic understandings of the concepts about literacy and its functions.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)

Creating a library of your child's books is a great way to show her how important reading is. It will also give her a special place to keep her books and will motivate her to keep pulling books from her own library to read. Here are some ideas for getting started!



By: The Access Center (2005)
Learn about “computer-assisted instruction” (CAI) and the ways in which it enhances teacher instruction.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) is our nation's special education law. Below you'll find important information about IDEA 2004, which went into effect on July 1, 2005.

By: Brenda McLaughlin, Jane Voorhees Sharp (2005)

Research about how much children lose ground over the summer is well documented, but kids don't have to lose ground over the summer. In fact, you can encourage your child to have a summer of fun and learning with these five free and easy things to do.



By: Lucy Steiner, Julie Kowal (2005)

Research shows that effective school leaders focus on improving classroom instruction, not just managerial tasks. A natural way for school leaders to take on the role of instructional leader is to serve as a "chief" coach for teachers by designing and supporting strong classroom level instructional coaching. Here's how to selecting a coaching approach that meets the particular needs of a school and how to implement and sustain the effort.



By: The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement (2005)
Research shows that parent involvement can improve students' behavior, attendance, and achievement. But how can schools foster high-quality, successful parent involvement? The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement offers some research-based advice and resources to help.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2005)

Suggestions for fostering independent reading include: (a) Give children books that are not too difficult. (b) Help them find books they will enjoy. (c) Encourage them to try many kinds of material. Although independent reading cannot substitute for teaching decoding, it improves reading comprehension and the habit of reading.



By: Joanne Meier (2005)

You've got the reading lists. You've got the books. But what else can you do to make your children better readers this summer?



By: Maria Salvadore (2005)
Kids and adults alike couldn't wait for the release of the newest Harry Potter book. Young readers embraced the young wizard and his friends, and have made Hogwarts, the rivalry between its Houses, the names of the faculty, and the passion for Quidditch household terms.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005)

The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD). A brief overview of the approach is provided, including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs.



By: Judy Shanley (2005)
When looking for a professional to deliver tutoring services to your child, what are some of the important questions to ask and issues to keep in mind?

By: Kathryn Drummond (2005)

About 10 million children have difficulties learning to read. The good news is that more than 90 percent of struggling readers can overcome their difficulties if they receive appropriate treatment at early ages.



By: Afterschool Alliance (2005)
Afterschool advocates and practitioners face a daily struggle for adequate funding. This brief describes how both research and personal stories reveal resoundingly that afterschool programs are a worthy investment.

By: Mary Seehafer Sears (2005)

Not everyone lives near Chincoteague lsland off the Maryland and Virginia coastline (Misty of Chincoteague) or has a chance to visit the Laura Ingalls Wilder house museum in the Ozarks (Little House on the Prairie). But books can inspire some exciting day trips.



By: The Center for Public Education (2005)
After more than 20 years of research, class size continues to be at the forefront of the educational and political agenda for schools, school districts, and school boards. Here is a snapshot of what research tells us about class size and student achievement.

By: Reading Is Fundamental (2005)

Parents can make reading more motivating by letting children choose books and making reading a memorable family event. Find out what children themselves have to say about these guidelines for parents to increase motivation.



By: National Institute for Literacy (2005)
Teachers can strengthen instruction and protect their students' valuable time in school by scientifically evaluating claims about teaching methods and recognizing quality research when they see it. This article provides a brief introduction to understanding and using scientifically based research.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)
School psychologists play a critical role in the lives of children who are struggling to learn. More and more, for example, school psychologists are leaders in developing and carrying out the assessments and placements decisions that impact students from the beginning of their school careers. With your help, schools can reduce the number of students who lag behind grade level – and increase the number of successful readers.

By: Annette Lamb, Larry Johnson (2005)
Encourage students to become better listeners and readers through audiobooks.

By: Maria Salvadore, Susan Hepler (2005)

Use the power of stories to explore what's different and the same, new and shared, about ourselves and our experiences. These nine books find wonderful ways to express universal themes through African Americans, both fictional and real.



By: Mary Haga (2005)

Part of teaching reading is motivating the children to practice, practice, practice. Find out how to use children's poetry to encourage kids to read.



By: Cara Bafile (2005)

The reader's theater strategy blends students' desire to perform with their need for oral reading practice. Reader's Theater offers an entertaining and engaging means of improving fluency and enhancing comprehension.



By: Amanda Fenlon (2005)
Entering kindergarten can a joyful but also an anxious time, particularly for parents of children with disabilities. These best practices can help make for a smoother transition: using a collaborative team approach to involve families, setting transition goals, and focusing on the needs and strengths of individual children.

By: Hamilton Mountain News (2005)

Encourage literacy in your home and community. Here are some great tips to start everyone on the road to reading.



By: The Education Department (2005)
Is your preschooler ready for school? The Education Department prepared this checklist to help guide parents as they prepare their child for school.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
The first five years of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. The experiences a child has during this time can make an impact on their readiness to learn. Here the Education Department offers some tips to guide parents in choosing childcare.

By: The Education Department (2005)
What can you do to make the first day of school happier for both you and your kindergartener? Here are six things you can do to set your child on the path to school success.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Long before your child enters school, you can do many things to help him or her develop language. When young children are provided with opportunities to listen to and use language constantly, they can begin to acquire the essential building blocks for learning how to read.

By: The Education Department (2005)
How can you help your baby or toddler to learn and to get ready for school? Here are some ways to make sure young children's physical and social needs are met.

By: Amy Stuczynski, Joyce Riha Linik, Rebecca Novick, Jean Spraker (2005)

Children can learn about family heritage at the same time they are improving their literacy skills. Using family-based writing projects, you can build a connection with parents, and help children see the value in their own heritage and in the diversity around them.



By: Amy Stuczynski, Joyce Riha Linik, Rebecca Novick, Jean Spraker (2005)

Writing is a new way for young children to tell their stories and express themselves, but they are also learning valuable lessons about print concepts and letter-sound relationships when they put pen to paper.



By: Jim Trelease (2005)
What can parents buy to help a child do better at school? Jim Trelease, author of The Read-Aloud Handbook, suggests the three B's.

By: Henry Winkler (2005)
Actor and author Henry Winkler reminisces about how dyslexia impacted his school years in this article from Highlights for Children magazine. "Now I know," he writes, "that even if a person learns differently, he or she can still be filled with greatness."

By: The Access Center (2005)

How do you choose the best method for measuring reading progress? This brief article describes which assessments to use for different reading skills so that you can make sure all students are making progress towards becoming readers!



By: Amy Stuczynski, Joyce Riha Linik, Rebecca Novick, Jean Spraker (2005)

Literacy activities can take on a new meaning when students are reading and writing about their own community. Children learn the true value of print when they document the oral histories of the elders in their town.



By: Partnership for Reading (2004)

Guided oral reading is an instructional strategy that can help students improve a variety of reading skills, including fluency. This article explains how to implement it in your classroom.



By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)

The specific signs of dyslexia, both weaknesses and strengths, vary widely. Problems with oral language, decoding, fluency, spelling, and handwriting are addressed, as well as strengths in higher order thinking skills.



By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)

The earliest clues involve mostly spoken language. The very first clue to a language (and reading) problem may be delayed language. Once the child begins to speak, look for difficulties with rhyming, phonemic awareness, and the ability to read common one-syllable words.



By: Illinois Early Learning Project (2004)
Starting kindergarten can be an anxious or an exciting experience for children. These tips will help you start your child off right. This article is also available in Spanish.

By: National Association of School Psychologists (2004)
School psychologists are highly trained in both psychology and education to help children be successful academically, socially, and emotionally. Learn more about their role and the kinds of support and services they offer.

By: Sally M. Reis, Robert Colbert (2004)

Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in elementary and secondary school. This article looks at what kinds of support students with this profile need, and how school counselors can provide it.



By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)

A look at three pivotal longitudinal studies that clearly show: Late bloomers are rare; skill deficits are almost always what prevent children from blooming as readers.



By: The Lee Pesky Learning Center (2004)

Music is a great way to introduce children to sounds and words! Research indicates that exposure to music has numerous benefits for a child's development.



By: Kara Hume, Indiana Resource Center for Autism (2004)

Students with autism spectrum disorder have a number of unique challenges in the classroom. Learn how to set up work systems that can help your students become more independent by strengthening organization skills, reducing distractibility, understanding sequence of events, and more.



By: Laurie Fry (2004)
The parent-teacher conference can be a stressful time for both parents and teachers – even more so if your child possibly has a problem. This article offers strategies for getting the most out of the conference, and also includes stories from veteran teachers of successful (and not-so-successful) parent-teacher conferences.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)

An informal assessment of phonic elements, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment of word recognition, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)

An informal assessment of reading fluency, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment of reading accuracy, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment of reading inventory, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)

An informal assessment of phonemic awareness, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment phonological awareness, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)

An informal assessment of letter/sound recognition, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)

An informal assessment of the concepts of print, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.



By: Roger Farr, Jenny Conner (2004)

Students need to think while they are reading. By using modeling, coached practice, and reflection, you can teach your students strategies to help them think while they read and build their comprehension.



By: Brenda Dyck (2004)
The promise of a successful year is the hope of every student and teacher. Educator Brenda Dyck shares the story of Stephen and ponders the importance of offering a fresh start to every student who enters her classroom.

By: AARP (2004)
Books can be the perfect gifts for grandchildren of any age. But, with such a variety to choose from, selecting the right book can be a challenge. This article provides some hints to make the process a little easier.

By: National PTA (2004)
This article from the National PTA features ideas on how to help your school age children improve their reading skills and tips on how to develop pre-reading skills in younger children.

By: National PTA (2004)
This article from the National PTA features ideas on how to help your school age child improve their reading skills and tips on how to develop pre-reading skills in younger children.

By: National PTA (2004)

Parents want the best for their children. Reading can open a window on the world, bringing chances to learn, enjoy and create. Even though schools teach reading and writing, home is the first and best place for your child's love of reading to grow.



By: Carolyn B. Bagin, Lawrence M. Rudner (2004)
Standardized testing is one form of assessment used in schools. Find out about standardized tests, how and why schools use them, and how you can support your child.

By: Carolyn B. Bagin, Lawrence M. Rudner (2004)
Standardized testing is one form of assessment used in schools. Find out about standardized tests, how and why schools use them, and how you can support your child in this article for parents.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2004)

What parents do or don't do in the preschool years has a lasting impact on children's reading ability. Learn some facts about the importance and need for literacy experiences in the primary grades.



By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
Early intervention works. Because it is also expensive, it's important to be able to identify the kids who are most at risk of reading failure. Thanks to a new generation of screening assessments, we can identify these students as early as kindergarten — and then invest in interventions for them.

By: Anne Svensen (2004)
Children who aren't motivated to read can benefit from support at home. Learn what parents can do to make reading a more enjoyable experience for struggling readers in this interview with Dr. Marie Carbo.

By: Kerry Hempenstall (2004)
This article explores what happens when three children with very different learning styles enter the classroom.

By: Suzanne Carreker (2004)
This article describes the most common characterists of dyslexia and other learning disorders, and what you can do if you suspect your child has a problem.

By: CanTeach (2004)
Children work at different paces. Here are some suggestions for how to keep your speedy workers occupied while their classmates finish their assignments.

By: CanTeach (2004)
Good rewards provide the incentive for a successful classroom management system. Here are some ideas to get you started.

By: PEAK Learning Systems (2004)
How your classroom is arranged can have a big effect on your ability to effectively manage your class. This article discusses some ideas you should keep in mind as you set up your classroom.

By: Kathleen Bulloch (2004)

Teachers are often asked to modify instruction to accommodate special needs students. In fact, all students will benefit from the following good teaching practices. The following article takes the mystery out of adapting materials and strategies for curriculum areas.



By: Kathleen Bulloch (2004)
Classrooms today have students with many special needs, and teachers are often directed to "modify as necessary." The following article takes the mystery out of modifying your teaching strategies with concrete examples that focus on students' organizational skills.

By: Partnership for Reading (2004)
While most parents take a dedicated interest in their children's schooling, particularly the first few grades, many may not be aware of what is considered proper curriculum – and whether their children's schools are teaching at an appropriate level.

By: Partnership for Reading (2004)
These findings of the National Reading Panel offer a wealth of detailed information on strategies that have proven to work in reading instruction.

By: Sebastian Wren (2004)

There are many beliefs and a great deal of dogma associated with reading acquisition, and people are often reluctant to let go of their beliefs despite contradictory research evidence. Here are 10 of the most popular and most potentially pernicious myths that influence reading education.



By: C.R. Adler (2004)

Comprehension strategies are conscious plans — sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps students become purposeful, active readers who are in control of their own reading comprehension. These seven strategies have research-based evidence for improving text comprehension.



By: Jane McFann (2004)

The statistics are consistent: Young male readers lag behind their female counterparts in literacy skills. This article looks at the social, psychological, and developmental reasons why, and suggests solutions — including the need for more men to become role models for reading.



By: Colorín Colorado (2004)
Here are ten things you can do to help your child succeed at school!

By: Colorín Colorado (2004)
The following tips explain simple things you can do to help encourage your child to read, learn, and succeed!

By: Marilyn J. Adams, Barbara Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg, Terri Beeler (2004)

Activities that stimulate phonemic awareness in preschool and elementary school children are one sure way to get a child ready for reading! Here are eight of them from expert Marilyn Jager Adams.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)
The following are sample charts you can use when assessing students informally in the classroom. Most of the assessments here should be given one-on-one.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2004)
If your child or student is a "poor" listener, frequently misunderstands speech, and has difficulty following directions, read this article. Learn symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder, how it is diagnosed, and what can be done about it.

By: Partnership for Reading (2004)

School administrators have a critical leadership role to play in helping students become good readers. This article suggests seven key action steps on how principals and other administrators can create a school framework for success.



By: Teri James Bellis (2004)
This article, from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, distinguishes auditory processing disorder from other disorders. Symptoms and treatment are described. An explanation is provided of the role of the multidisciplinary team and the role of the audiologist, which is the only profession that can legitimately diagnose auditory processing disorders.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)

What should you do if you think your child is having trouble with reading? Sometimes children just need more time, but sometimes they need extra help. Trust your instincts! You know your child best. If you think there's a problem, there probably is.



By: U.S. Department of Education (2004)

The U.S. Department of Education developed this brief guide for reading tutors. It lists ways that tutoring helps both the learner and the tutor, and provides practical tips that can help tutors be more effective in their work.



By: Anne McGill-Franzen, Richard Allington (2004)

Many kids lose ground during the summer months, especially those from low income families. Part of the problem is that many students don't have easy access to books. This article presents some suggestions for what schools can do.



By: Kirsten Miller, David Snow, Patricia Lauer (2004)
Reading instruction does not need to stop when the bell rings. Using out-of-school time (OST) can be an effective way to boost academic skills while engaging students outside of the classroom. Education research lab McREL reviews effective afterschool and summer programs that focus on reading, and identifies the components that make them successful.

By: Kirsten Miller, David Snow, Patricia Lauer (2004)
Developing an afterschool or summer school program? This checklist will make sure you structure it for success!

By: Kirsten Miller, David Snow, Patricia Lauer (2004)
Out-of-school time (OST) can be essential for at-risk students to develop basic academic skills. Education research lab McREL studied a variety of programs across the country to determine how OST programs are being used to help this population.

By: Virginia Berninger, Donna Rury Smith, Louise O'Donnell (2004)

This article discusses current research-supported instructional practices in reading and writing. It also reviews alternatives to ability-achievement discrepancy in identifying students for special education services, as well as introduces the idea that ability-achievement discrepancies should be based on specific cognitive factors that are relevant to specific kinds of learning disabilities rather than Full Scale IQ.



By: National Summer Learning Association (2004)
Research demonstrates that all students experience significant learning losses in procedural and factual knowledge during the summer months.

By: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2004)
Children with auditory processing disorder (APD) often do not recognized the subtle differences between sounds in words because a dysfunction makes it difficult for the brain to interpret the information. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders presents basic information on symptoms, diagnosis, and current research of APD.

By: The Access Center (2004)

Differentiated instruction, also called differentiation, is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. Writing instruction can be differentiated to allow students varying amounts of time to complete assignments, to give students different writing product options, and to teach skills related to the writing process.



By: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2004)
Hearing the difference between similar sounding words such as grow and glow is easy for most children, but not for all children. Children who unable to hear these differences will be confused when these words appear in context, and their comprehension skills will suffer dramatically.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
How can you help kids develop print awareness? Here are some sample questions and prompts you can use before, during, and after a read aloud activity to help children activate basic knowledge about print and books.

By: Martha Randolph Carr (2004)
This is a cautionary tale, not just for people who have no real idea of what a learning disability is and probably suspect the whole thing is an overindulgent scam, but also for any parent of a child struggling mightily through school.

By: Pamela A. Solvie (2004)

Learn the basics of how a digital whiteboard works and potential benefits of using the technology in early literacy instruction. Results of a research study in a first grade classroom reveal that digital whiteboards are effective as an organizational tool for lesson preparation and followup instruction; provide opportunities for scaffolded learning; and stimulate greater student engagement.



By: Society for Neuroscience (2004)

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
Children must understand how speech sounds work to be ready for instruction in reading and writing. There are many activities that you can do with your students to help them increase their knowledge of speech sounds and their relationship to letters.

By: Akimi Gibson (2004)
This article provides tutors with proven techniques for helping students acquire comprehension skills and strategies. In addition to building background knowledge about comprehension, it looks at six comprehension strategies and activities that support eachstrategy.

By: Access Center (2004)
Differentiated instruction is based on the premise that instructional approaches should vary and be adapted in relation to individual and diverse students. This brief looks at how differentiation strategies applied to reading can be designed to help students learn a range of skills including, phonics, comprehension, fluency, word prediction, and story prediction.

By: Valerie G. Chapman, Diane Sopko (2003)
Combined-text books integrate a story format and an expository or informational format within one book. When used for instruction, combined-text books are best read in layers: illustrations; informational text; narrative text; and additional details, such as sketches and page borders. Addressing various layers individually during read-alouds provides a perfect opportunity to model revisiting text for various purposes.

By: Jessica Burkhalter (2003)
These systems of rewards and consequences emphasize the techniques needed for successful classroom management.

By: Tyler Currie (2003)
Everyone said his 10-year-old student would never learn to read. For a long time, he believed it, too.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
The following is a general list of risk factors for reading difficulties by grade level. Please note that the list is not all-inclusive and should be interpreted with reference to age and grade expectations.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
If a child's history suggests increased risk for reading difficulties, it is critical that he or she receive high-quality reading instruction, early intervention, parent support and special education, if needed.

By: Walter Minkel (2003)

If you're a children's librarian who wants to promote an upcoming summer reading program at your public library, start by targeting the local schools. After all, that's where the children are.



By: Denise Johnson (2003)

Audiobooks have traditionally been used with second-language learners, learning-disabled students, and struggling readers or nonreaders. In many cases, audiobooks have proven successful in helping these students to access literature and enjoy books. But they have not been widely used with average, avid, or gifted readers. This article lists the benefits of audiobooks for all students.



By: Marianne S. Meyer (2003)

Does your child need to be evaluated for a learning disability? Learn how to find the best professional, prepare for evaluation, and get the most information from the experience.



By: Lisa Trei (2003)
For the first time, researchers have shown that the brains of dyslexic children can be rewired -- after undergoing intensive remediation training -- to function more like those found in normal readers.

By: Hermine H. Marshall (2003)

Many families are under the mistaken impression that holding their child out of kindergarten for an additional year will be beneficial, that it will give the child the gift of time. But families need to be aware of the possibility of too little challenge and the potential negative effects of holding children out.



By: Between the Lions (2003)

Creating a word family chart with the whole class or a small group builds phonemic awareness, a key to success in reading. Students will see how words look alike at the end if they sound alike at the end — a valuable discovery about our alphabetic writing system. They'll also see that one little chunk (in this case "-an") can unlock lots of words!



By: Lynn S. Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs (2003)
Progress monitoring is an assessment technique that tells teachers how and when to adjust curriculum so that students meet benchmark goals by the end of the year. This research shows that progress monitoring is an effective way to set and meet academic goals.

By: Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst (2002)

Dialogic reading works. Children who have been read to dialogically are substantially ahead of children who have been read to traditionally on tests of language development. Children can jump ahead by several months in just a few weeks of dialogic reading.



By: LD OnLine (2002)

Motivation is key to school success. Just as the actor asks a director, "What is my motivation, for this scene?," the child turns to teachers, parents, and peers to discover the "why" of learning. Motivation is often defined as a need or drive that energizes behavior toward a goal.



By: Beth Antunez (2002)

Find out how teachers can play to the strengths and shore up the weaknesses of English Language Learners in each of the Reading First content areas.



By: Judith Fontana (2002)

Moms, dads, or grandparents can play simple word games with kids to increase their ability to recognize and use letters and sounds. Try these games the next time you're on the go.



By: Kathleen Ross Kidder (2002)
Many professionals are involved in the diagnosis of LD: psychologists, educational specialists, and other professionals who work in specialized fields such as speech and language. This article identifies licensure requirements and who can diagnose LD and/or ADHD.

By: Susan Jones (2002)

Here are some concrete techniques that children can use to study spelling. This article also shares guidelines teachers and students should keep in mind, because practice makes permanent.



By: International Dyslexia Association (2002)

The International Dyslexia Association prepared this fact sheet describing reasonable accommodations involving materials, interactive instruction, and student performance to will help children with learning problems in general education and special education classrooms.



By: Shane Templeton (2002)
Although occasionally frustrating, spelling is logical, learnable, and critical to reading as well as to writing — but the most important thing is, it makes sense.

By: Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, Linda Kucan (2002)
Learn some of the ways that pre-kindergarten through elementary school teachers can enhance the vocabulary development of young children. It focuses on teaching words from texts that are read aloud to children and presents activities that help young children make sense of new words.

By: Richard Allington (2002)
This article by Richard Allington provides a clear-eyed view of what he believes matters most in teaching kids to read – effective and expert teachers.

By: Laurice Joseph (2002)

Get an overview of the characteristics associated with reading problems as well as the planning and implementation of effective interventions. Fundamental components of teaching such as scaffolding, connecting to prior knowledge, motivating, and providing opportunities to practice skills should be implemented.



By: Jessica Snyder (2002)
We asked the parents and teachers who frequent our web site for their ideas about how to encourage kids, especially those who aren't excited about books, to do more reading. Thanks to all you tip-sters out there, we received tons of advice, which we've summarized in the seven tips below.

By: Linda Oggel, Tracy Landon (2002)

Find out how to help students with executive functioning issues learn to manage their time, space, materials, and school work.



By: Debra Viadero (2002)
This article says that according to a new study, former full-day kindergartners were more than twice as likely as children without any kindergarten experiences – and 26 percent more likely than graduates of half-day programs – to have made it to 3rd and 4th grade without having repeated a grade. This study was presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

By: National Institute for Early Education Research (2002)
Research shows that 3- and 4-year-olds who attend a high-quality preschool are more successful in kindergarten and beyond. But research also shows that most preschool programs are not high-quality. This policy brief looks at what "high-quality" means, and how early childhood education can be improved.

By: Beth Antunez (2002)
In 1997, Congress approved the creation of a National Reading Panel (NRP) to initiate a national, comprehensive, research-based effort on alternative instructional approaches to reading instruction and to guide the development of public policy on literacy instruction (Ramírez, 2001).

By: Sebastian Wren (2002)
Who can understand all the jargon that's being tossed around in education these days? Consider all the similar terms that have to do with the sounds of spoken words — phonics, phonetic spelling, phoneme awareness, phonological awareness, and phonology — all of them share the same "phon" root, so they are easy to confuse, but they are definitely different, and each, in its way, is very important in reading education.

By: Texas Education Agency (2002)
The best strategy for developing reading fluency is to provide your students with many opportunities to read the same passage orally several times. To do this, you should first know what to have your students read. Second, you should know how to have your students read aloud repeatedly.

By: Texas Education Agency (2002)

Children's knowledge of letter names and shapes is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read. Knowing letter names is strongly related to children's ability to remember the forms of written words and their ability to treat words as sequences of letters.



By: Jessica Blom-Hoffman, Julie F. Dwyer, Angela T. Clarke, Thomas J. Power (2002)
Learn how school psychologists can partner with reading specialists and classroom teachers to evaluate the benefits of early intervention reading programs in their districts.

By: Linda Jacobson (2002)
The Parent-Child Home Program, a Manhasset, NY-based home visiting instigative for 2- and 3- year old children which has operated in Massachusetts and New York for years, is now proving so successful that it is expanding service to four other states. The PCHP focuses on children who are deemed to be at the greatest risk of failure in school – those with low-income parents who have limited education.

By: Texas Education Agency (2002)
The purpose of reading is comprehension — getting meaning from written text. Find out what else research tells us about the active process of constructing meaning, and how good readers consciously employing comprehension strategies.

By: Texas Education Agency (2002)

How can classroom reading instruction help poor readers — indeed, all students — become more like good readers? Research suggests that the answer may lie in providing students with instruction that both teaches them the comprehension strategies that work so well for good readers and helps them to develop the necessary metacognitive awareness of how and when to use these strategies.



By: Texas Education Agency (2002)

Effective comprehension instruction is instruction that helps students to become independent, strategic, and metacognitive readers who are able to develop, control, and use a variety of comprehension strategies to ensure that they understand what they read. To achieve this goal, comprehension instruction must begin as soon as students begin to read and it must: be explicit, intensive, and persistent; help students to become aware of text organization; and motivate students to read widely.



By: Texas Education Agency (2002)

Based on research and effective practice, these strategies help students learn how to coordinate and use a set of key comprehension techniques before, during, and after they read a variety of texts.



By: Texas Education Agency (2001)
Print awareness is a child's earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon this knowledge. The following are guidelines for teachers in how to promote print awareness and a sample activity for assessing print awareness in young children.

By: Texas Education Agency (2001)
Children with print awareness can begin to understand that written language is related to oral language. Children who lack print awareness are unlikely to become successful readers. Indeed, children's performance on print awareness tasks is a very reliable predictor of their future reading achievement.

By: Steve Graham, Karen R. Harris, Lynn Larsen (2001)
This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills: (a) providing effective writing instruction, (b) tailoring instruction to meet the individual needs,(c) intervening early, (d) expecting that each child will learn to write, (e) identifying and addressing roadblocks to writing, and (f) employing technologies.

By: Melissa Keller (2001)
Handwriting is a complex skill that is not often taught directly. It is not unusual for some students with disabilities to have difficulty with handwriting. These students may also have sensory integration problems. Handwriting Club is a format that provides direct instruction in handwriting combined with sensory integration activities. This article describes all the steps and materials necessary to organize and conduct a handwriting club.

By: Mark Stricherz (2001)

The National Association for Elementary School Principals has released a booklet on what principals should know and be able to do. Learn about their recommendations, including a focus on instructional leadership and six steps to raise test scores.



By: Beverley B. Swanson (2001)
This advice for parents details what they can do to help preschoolers become readers, and help school-age children improve their reading skills.

By: Laura Bush (2001)

Quality can look different in individual primary grade classrooms. However, there are certain characteristics of effective early reading programs that parents can look for in their children's classrooms. First Lady Laura Bush presents a list of these characteristics in this guide for parents.



By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
First and foremost, struggling readers need excellent reading instruction from their classroom teachers in order to overcome their difficulties. Many schools are also equipped to provide extra help to the children who need it.

By: Cynthia Warger (2001)
Many students with learning or reading disabilities find homework challenging. Here are five research-based strategies that teachers can use to help students.

By: Sharon Vaughn, Marie Tejero Hughes, Sally Watson Moody, Batya Elbaum (2001)
There are a variety of grouping formats that are effective for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities: whole class, small group, pairs, and one-on-one. Learn more about the research and implications for practice for using each format in the general education classroom.

By: Heather Wall (2001)
Parents and teachers can sympathize with struggling readers to a point, but they are usually far removed from the challenge of learning to read themselves. However, this reading specialist suffered a head injury and tells her story of what it was like to know how to decode but not to comprehend what she read.

By: National Institute for Literacy (2001)

By: Mary Ann Zehr (2001)
There are many children who are eligible for both special education and English as a Second Language instruction, but few models exist for how to serve these children well. Learn about a program in Clark County, Nevada in which dually trained teachers provide overlapping instruction to meet both these needs.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
You may have a child in your life who isn't as successful with reading as you think he or she could be. The challenge is that not all reading difficulties look the same, and not all reading difficulties should be addressed in the same way.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2001)
The Bush administration's program, No Child Left Behind, is a plan for educational reform that is targeted at changing the use of federal funds to close the achievement gap and improve achievement levels. The following is excerpted from the executive summary.

By: Erik W. Robelen (2001)
Given that Title I aid is spread throughout every state and nine out of ten school districts, one out of five eligible high poverty schools in poor districts are not receiving this aid. Learn about the history of the debate on Title I allocation.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2001)
President George W. Bush's initiative, Reading First, aims to ensure that every child learns to read by the third grade. This summary describes its proposals.

By: E. D. Hirsch, Jr. (2001)
The NAEP 2000 reading results provides further evidence of a longstanding gap in verbal skills between rich and poor children in the United States. This article describes the history of this achievement gap, speculates on its causes, and makes recommendations for closing it.

By: David J. Hoff (2001)
In the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), an international survey of the reading achievement of 15-year-olds, the U.S. had the widest gap — greater than 32 other countries — between the best and worst readers. These results demonstrate what reading experts say they already knew: most students leave the primary grades as competent readers steeped in the basics, but many fail to refine and build on their skills as they move through middle and high school.

By: Judith Gold, Akimi Gibson (2001)

This article discusses the power of reading aloud and goes a step further to discuss the power of thinking out loud while reading to children as a way to highlight the strategies used by thoughtful readers.



By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
Reading is a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Learn how readers integrate these facets to make meaning from print.

By: Head Start Information and Publication Center (2001)
Head Start is a Federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The Head Start program is operated by local non-profit organizations in almost every county in the country.

By: Lori Rog, Paul Kropp (2001)

One of the keys to helping struggling readers is to provide them with books that they can and want to read. Fiction for struggling readers must have realistic characters, readable and convincing text, and a sense of the readers' interests and needs. Non-fiction books, newspapers, magazines, even comic books can hook students on reading.



By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
Find answers to frequently asked questions about writing instruction.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
This article answers four common questions teachers have about vocabulary instruction, including what words to teach and how well students should know vocabulary words.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)

The scientific research on vocabulary instruction reveals that 1) most vocabulary is learned indirectly, and 2) some vocabulary must be taught directly.



By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
This article provides examples of classroom instructional techniques as well as specific activities for helping students build their vocabularies.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)

The following are answers to frequent questions teachers have about fluency instruction.



By: Robin Peth-Pierce (2001)

According to a recent major study of over 1,300 children across a seven-year period, different child care experiences influence the development of young children. Learn about these influences in this summary of a study conducted by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.



By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
Fluency develops gradually over time and through practice. At the earliest stage of reading development, students' oral reading is slow and labored because students are just learning to "break the code" – to attach sounds to letters and to blend letter sounds into recognizable words.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)

Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify, hear, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words. Manipulating the sounds in words includes blending, stretching, or otherwise changing words.



By: Dr. Deborah Moncrieff (2001)
Children with dyslexia are often referred to the audiologist to be evaluated for auditory processing disorder (APD). The relationship between dyslexia and APD is can be confusing, and this article helps professionals untangle the symptoms of the different difficulties.

By: National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center (2001)
The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center created this overview of the research on the effectiveness of after-school programs.

By: Debra Johnson, Angela Rudolph (2001)

This article takes the approach that if we avoid school failure in the first place, there might be less of a reason to consider retention. Specific “strategies” are described, including: intensifying learning, providing professional development to assure skilled teachers, expanding learning options, assessing students in a manner to assist teachers, and intervening in time to arrest poor performance.



By: Judith Gold, Akimi Gibson (2001)

Children learn when they make connections between what they hear and what they know. One method parents can use to help make these connections is called a think aloud, where you talk through your thoughts as you read.



By: Chia-Hui Lin (2001)
Teaching reading and writing to young children in American has always been an area of controversy and debate (Teale & Yokota, 2000), and it remains so today. The purpose of this article is to review various research studies and to identify essential elements of effective early literacy classroom instruction.

By: Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst (2001)
Reading skills provide a critical foundation for children's academic success. Children who read well read more and, as a result, acquire more knowledge in numerous domains.

By: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice (2001)
Many teachers feel that they do not have enough time in the school day to work one-on-one with every student. Classwide Peer Tutoring is a way for all students to get one-on-one help and enough time to practice and learn. This brief looks at what peer tutoring is, what studies show about the effectiveness of peer tutoring, and how parents and teachers can support the practice in the classroom.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling, Robert Sternberg (2001)

Review well-established scientific findings about reading and their practical implications, for children with and without reading disabilities. In addition, consider some broader ways that science may be useful to educators and get suggestions for individual teachers interested in becoming more familiar with scientific research on reading.



By: Jim Trelease (2001)
We read to children for all the same reasons we talk with children: to reassure, to entertain, to bond; to inform or explain, to arouse curiosity, to inspire. But in reading aloud, we also condition the child's brain to associate reading with pleasure, create background knowledge, build vocabulary, and provide a reading role model.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
It's not an easy thing, learning to read. This article provides a brief overview of what is involved and what parents, teachers, and everyone else who touches the life of a child can do to help those who struggle.

By: Reading Is Fundamental (2000)
It's not hard to help your children keep their interest in reading and learning during the summer break. Here are ten weeks of suggestions to encourage your children to open books even after school doors close.

By: American Library Association (2000)
There's more to sharing a book than reading it aloud to your child. Here are some tips for when and how to share books, and why it is so important.

By: Michael Pressley (2000)
Without a strong background in basic skills like decoding and vocabulary-building, reading comprehension is impossible. This article offers research-based strategies for building on these and other skills to increase student understanding of what is read.