Menu

Archived: Struggling Readers articles

Many of our articles dated 2000 and earlier can now be found in this archive.

By: The Access Center (2005)

Selecting a reading program can be an intimidating task. This article provides background information on scientifically based research conducted on various reading programs, the findings of the National Reading Panel, and some resources for learning more about reading programs.



By: International Dyslexia Association (2000)
Dyslexia is a language-based disability that affects both oral and written language. With help, children with dyslexia can become successful readers. Find out the warning signs for dyslexia that preschool and elementary school children might display.

By: American Federation of Teachers (1999)
This brief from the American Federation of Teachers examines the strengths and weaknesses of Direct Instruction, one of five promising reading intervention programs they evaluated (also see Early Steps, Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, Lindamood-Bell, and Reading Recovery in this section).

By: American Federation of Teachers (1999)
This brief from the American Federation of Teachers examines the strengths and weaknesses of Early Steps, one of five promising reading intervention programs they evaluated (also see Direct Instruction, Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, Lindamood-Bell, and Reading Recovery in this section).

By: American Federation of Teachers (1999)
This brief from the American Federation of Teachers examines the strengths and weaknesses of Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, one of five promising reading intervention programs they evaluated (also see Direct Instruction, Early Steps, Lindamood-Bell, and Reading Recovery in this section).

By: American Federation of Teachers (1999)
This brief from the American Federation of Teachers examines the strengths and weaknesses of Lindamood-Bell, one of five promising reading intervention programs they evaluated (also see Direct Instruction, Early Steps, Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, and Reading Recovery in this section).

By: American Federation of Teachers (1999)
This brief from the American Federation of Teachers examines the strengths and weaknesses of Reading Recovery, one of five promising reading intervention programs they evaluated (also see Direct Instruction, Early Steps, Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction, and Lindamood-Bell in this section).

By: Doris J. Johnson (1999)
Children with disabilities can benefit from the same language and literacy activities as all young children: being read to, having rich conversations, and playing games with sounds. However, children with disabilities may need these activities to be modified or intensified for maximum benefit. Find out about activities for struggling readers in these suggestions for parents.

By: Jane Burnette (1999)
Peer tutoring, cross-age tutoring, and small learning groups have been shown by research to be effective for teaching reading to students with and without learning disabilities. This articles affirms that using a variety of grouping formats is preferable to whole class instruction or ability grouping.

By: Susan Burns (1999)
Children who have difficulty learning to read often run into one or more of three stumbling blocks: difficulty with the alphabetic principle, with comprehension, and with fluency. Find out about these stumbling blocks in this overview.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Knowing that students with certain family backgrounds and experiences are more likely to have trouble learning to read means that efforts can be made with these children to prevent difficulties from developing. For example, children with a family history of difficulties or with little exposure to books are at increased risk.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Students with reading difficulties do not seem to need qualitatively different instruction from children who aren't struggling, but certain students may need more intensive support from a reading specialist. This overview of how children with reading difficulties should be served in school includes an argument for schools to employ reading specialists.

By: Robert Bock (1998)
NICHD research on children with learning disabilities has shown that deficiencies in processing letter-sounds are at the heart of most reading problems. This article illustrates how letter-sound processing works, and describes strategies for teaching children this skill.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
A school in which students are performing at a much higher (or much lower) level than might be predicted using such standard measures as family SES is often described as an "outlier."

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
There are certain characteristics of groups and individual children that increase their likelihood of struggling with reading. Find out how to use knowledge of these risk factors to help prevent reading problems for these children.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Children who speak nonstandard dialects of English may be at greater risk for reading difficulties.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Reading ability is determined by many factors, and requires the development of certain skills through early reading instruction to attain initial success and build on it.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Reading is essential to success in our society. The ability to read is highly valued and important for social and economic advancement. Of course, most children learn to read fairly well. In this report, we are most concerned with the large numbers of children in America whose educational careers are imperiled because they do not read well enough to ensure understanding and to meet the demands of an increasingly competitive economy.

By: G. Reid Lyon (1997)
While the ability to read words accurately is a necessary skill in learning to read, the speed at which this is done becomes a critical factor in ensuring that children understand what they read.

By: G. Reid Lyon (1997)
Some children encounter obstacles in learning to read because they do not derive meaning from the material that they read.

By: Susan Brady, Louisa Moats (1997)
Recent research has provided a clearer picture about reading difficulties and how to prevent them. This position paper of the International Dyslexia Association argues for reform in teacher preparation to reflect these research-based understandings.

By: G. Reid Lyon (1997)
A child's background and prior experiences can contribute to increased risk of reading problems. However, the are four factors that hinder reading development regardless of a child's background. Find out what they are in this brief overview.

By: Ed Kame'enui, Marilyn J. Adams, G. Reid Lyon (1996)
Children from a variety of backgrounds struggle with learning to read. However, as described in this article, research points to one common reason they struggle, and common strategies to help them succeed.

By: Marilyn J. Adams (1990)
One of the earliest efforts in the recent trend to synthesize what we know from reading research, Marilyn Adams' 1990 book, "Beginning To Read" was a landmark review of the research on phonics and reading acquisition. Read her description of what she did and what she learned as she went through the process of producing this report.

"There is more treasure in books than in all the pirate's loot on Treasure Island." — Walt Disney