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All Struggling Readers articles

By: Laurice Joseph (2013)
Get an overview of the characteristics associated with reading problems as well as the planning and implementation of effective interventions. Fundamental components of teaching such as scaffolding, connecting to prior knowledge, motivating, and providing opportunities to practice skills should be implemented.

By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Get ready for a really great school year. Find out what to look for during your school's open house and back-to-school night, tips for helping your child make a smooth transition from summer to school, how to establish homework routines, and even a booklist full of wonderful school-themed picture books to share.

By: Saga Briggs (2013)

In many states, third graders who cannot read proficiently are required to repeat that year. This policy, known as mandatory retention, can greatly impact students' emotional and cognitive development. In an effort to reconcile the academic and social needs of young learners, this article addresses the pros and cons of mandatory retention, global treatment of the problem, and possible solutions.



By: Melissa Taylor (2012)
Most kids love stories, but not all love to read. Discover 10 creative ways to encourage active kids who would rather run than read, to enjoy digging into books.

By: Alise Brann, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2012)

Learn how technology tools can support struggling students and those with learning disabilities in acquiring background knowledge and vocabulary, improving their reading comprehension, and making connections between reading and writing.



By: Carole Cox (2012)
Read and discuss poetry with nature imagery with students. Take students on a poetry walk around the school, neighborhood, or community to observe and collect sensory images from direct experience with nature: the sights, sounds, smells, and textures of things outdoors. Students can take a poetry journal with them to write down words as they observe, listen, smell, and touch things outside the classroom.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn about the common signs of dyslexia, how parents can support their child and celebrate their strengths, the role of assistive technology, how the latest brain research can help kids with dyslexia, and more.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Keeping kids interested and motivated to read is sometimes a challenge. Learn how to effectively motivate young learners, including tips from kids for teachers and parents, classroom strategies that work, and guidance for motivating struggling readers, reluctant readers, and boys.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Get the basic facts about what it takes for a young child to learn to read, best practices in teaching reading, the importance of oral language in literacy development, why so many children struggle, and more in this overview.

By: Corrie Kelly (2011)
If you are planning to purchase an intervention program for instruction, get as much information as you can about a program's benefits and effectiveness. This article provides basic comparative information about a range of commercially available intervention programs.

By: Sheri Vasinda, Julie McLeod (2011)

The struggling second and third graders in this study increased their reading comprehension after a 10-week Readers Theatre podcasting project. Podcasting made the students aware of a wider audience, which enhanced the authenticity and social nature of the strategy, and made their performances permanent so they could be stored and conveniently retrieved for later listening and evaluation.



By: Carole Cox (2011)
Using students' questions as a basis for investigations in science education is an effective teaching strategy. Not only do students pose questions they would like answered, but they are asked to find ways to answer them. This article also recommends nonfiction science books that use a question and answer format to find information and model how to communicate what you know.

By: Ruth Heitin (2011)
Learn how to write Individualized Education Plan (IEP) goals that are SMART (specific, measurable, use action words, realistic, and time-limited) and based on research-based educational practice.

By: Alise Brann, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2011)
One motivating, engaging, and inexpensive way to help build the foundational reading skills of students is through the use of closed-captioned and subtitled television shows and movies. These supports can help boost foundational reading skills, such as phonics, word recognition, and fluency.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Homework is important, but helping children with homework isn't always easy. Here are some ways you can make homework easier for everyone!

By: Kathryn Glasswell, Michael P. Ford (2010)
Leveling mania has gripped many elementary schools. The use of carefully leveled texts designed to meet the developmental needs of many readers is a common feature in current reading programs. Although popular leveling systems — Reading Recovery, Benchmark texts, Lexiles — may vary in terms of the number of levels and discrimination among them, at the core they all attempt to classify texts in terms of their perceived difficulties for specific readers. In a desire to match readers to texts, books are scrutinized, classified, and sanctioned for reading only when the match between reader and text has been firmly established.

By: Kathy Ruhl, Charles Hughes (2010)
A review of the research on the effective use of homework for students with learning disabilities suggests that there are three big ideas for teachers to remember: (1) the best use of homework is to build proficiency in recently acquired skills or to maintain skills previously mastered; (2) homework should be individualized; and (3) teachers should evaluate homework and provide detailed feedback to students.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)
The IEP guides the delivery of special education and related services and supplementary aids and supports for the child with a disability. Without a doubt, writing and implementing an effective IEP requires teamwork. So, who's on the team?

By: Ann Dolin (2010)
The summer is a time to unwind and relax for parents and kids alike, but learning should not come to a halt. By focusing on your child's interests, involving the family, and setting goals, you can motivate even the most reluctant learners

By: Paula Kluth (2010)
Reading comprehension is often a concern for the teachers of students with autism. The comprehension strategies described in this article may help some students gain comprehension skills and improve their ability to read and communicate about written material.

By: Paula Kluth (2010)
Some students identified with autism can participate successfully in whole-class rich literacy experiences, with the right kind of support. Learn about strategies for designing lessons that are appropriate, engaging, and challenging for every learner in the inclusive classroom.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2010)
Hearing is critical to speech and language development, communication, and learning. Children with listening difficulties due to hearing loss or auditory processing problems continue to be an underidentified and underserved population.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
To be scientifically literate, students must be able to express themselves appropriately. Learn how to help struggling students master specific vocabulary and be able to use it in their science writing activities.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
In an increasingly complex world, all students need to be scientifically literate. While some students may go on to pursue advanced careers in the sciences, basic scientific literacy is critical for all students.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Science learning often involves creating abstract representations and models of processes that we are unable to observe with the naked eye. Learn more about visualizing, representing, and modeling to aid struggling learners.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Knowing how to engage in signature scientific acts, such as formulating questions and using evidence in arguments is an important part of science learning. This InfoBrief from the National Center for Technology Innovation offers more information about using technology to support struggling students.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
The type of physical tasks often present in many science lessons can present significant barriers for many students with learning disabilities or physical impairments. How can teachers find ways for these students to participate?

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the Council on Children with Disabilities published a statement summarizing what is currently known about visual problems and dyslexia. The statement also covers what treatments are and are not recommended when diagnosing and treating vision problems, learning disabilities, and dyslexia.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)
If your child has a learning disability, he or she may benefit from assistive technology tools that play to their strengths and work around their challenges.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation, Center for Implementing Technology in Education (CITEd) (2009)
Many computer products have built-in accessibility options such as text-to-speech, screen magnification options, or voice input controls. Learn what some of these optional features are and how to integrate them into instruction and studying.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2009)
Additional and explicit instruction in phonological awareness is a critical component in helping fourth grade readers who struggle with phonological deficits. The exercises can be used as a warm-up prior to reading, spelling, or vocabulary instruction.

By: Susan Hall (2009)
Parents are often the first to suspect their child has a reading problem. An expert alerts parents to some of the earliest indicators of a reading difficulty.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Lee Swanson (2009)
Research-based information and advice for sizing up reading programs and finding the right one for your child with a learning disability.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
For almost 40 percent of kids, learning to read is a challenge. So in addition to talking, reading, and writing with their child, families play another important role — being on the lookout for early signs of possible trouble.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Once your child moves into first, second, and third grade, being able to read fluently and comprehend what he or she reads become critical for future success in school.

By: America Reads at Bank Street College of Education (2009)
Tutors can play very important roles in the lives of the children they work with. Learn about these roles and the types of tutoring programs that are available to provide young readers with one-on-one support.

By: Alise Brann, Judy Zorfass, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2009)

Technology tools and supports can be an excellent way to help struggling students engage with social studies texts in a meaningful way, and build deeper understanding through guided inquiry.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Heading off to kindergarten is a big event for all kids and parents. For young children who have struggled socially or academically during preschool, it is a transition that needs careful planning and attention. Below are four suggestions for parents of children who may need extra help making a successful move to kindergarten.

By: Jerry Pinkney (2009)
Jill Lauren's That's Like Me! is a book about 15 students with disabilities who face challenges in school but express their creativity and talents through hobbies. In the foreword, excerpted here, children's book illustrator Jerry Pinkney describes growing up with two personas: Jerry the gifted artist and Jerry the struggling reader.

By: Regina G. Richards (2008)
We all use strategies throughout our day to remember the variety of facts and ideas we need to retain. It is valuable for teachers, therapists, and parents to understand the memory process in order to become better equipped to help our students understand and use strategies.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)
Answers to frequently asked questions on how to help children with communication disorders, particularly in regards to speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

By: Voice of America (2008)
This article describes the basic facts about dyslexia, a learning disability that most commonly affects reading, spelling, and writing.

By: LD OnLine (2008)
Learning disabilities (LD) come in several forms. Learn more about them, how they're identified, and what types of instruction support students with LD.

By: Jerome J. Schultz (2008)
The director of Learning Lab at Lesley University, explains that dyslexia is regarded as a neurobiological condition that is genetic in origin, which means it can run in families.

By: Jan Hasbrouck (2008)
Teachers do their best to improve students' fluency, but sometimes the information they have to work with is incomplete and, therefore, leads them down the wrong path. For example, silent reading or 'Round Robin' reading seem like good ways to improve fluency. But, in fact, increasing fluency requires more practice, more support, and more guided oral reading than either of these strategies can deliver.

By: Jan Hasbrouck (2008)
What should fluency instruction look like? And, what can teachers do to help students whose fluency is far behind their peers'? This article should help practitioners use of fluency-based assessments and select instructional practices.

By: Susan Hall (2008)
How do parents know if their child's reading delay is a real problem or simply a "developmental lag?" How long should parents wait before seeking help if their child is struggling with reading? Susan Hall answers these questions.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Children who struggle with reading often need extra help. This help usually comes from the school, but some parents choose to look outside the school for professionals who can assess, diagnose, tutor, or provide other education services.

By: International Reading Association (2008)
There are a number of current informal reading inventories — each has its strengths, limitations, and unique characteristics, which should be considered in order to best fit a teacher's needs.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Here are some ways parents can help relieve test anxiety, stress, and pressure, as well as a guide to interpreting your child's test results.

By: Angela McRae, John T. Guthrie (2008)

Using Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) or practices to encourage engagement, educators can advance the breadth and depth of students' reading by explicitly and systematically nourishing students' motivations as readers.



By: Rick Lavoie (2008)
Teachers: How do you convince your principal, fellow teachers, and other school staff to help the student in your class who has a learning disability? Rick Lavoie, world-renowned expert, speaker, and author on teaching children with LD, tells you how to get your voice heard. Learn how to handle common road blocks and become a proactive and successful advocate in the hallways, the teacher's lounge, and the administrative suite.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Studies show that screening English language learners for abilities in phonological processing, letter knowledge, and word and text reading will help identify those who are progressing well and/or who require additional instructional support.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Teachers of English learners should devote approximately 90 minutes a week to instructional activities in which pairs of students at different ability levels or proficiencies work together on academic tasks in a structured fashion.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
Learn to develop the evidence you need to support your belief that your child is not receiving the right help in school. Peter and Pamela Wright, from Wrightslaw, tell you how to interpret and chart your child's test scores, graph your child's progress, and successfully communicate with the educators who make decisions about your child.

By: Rick Lavoie (2007)
Many of the adults in your child's life are unfamiliar with learning disorders in general, or your child's unique pattern of strengths and limitations. Developing a one- to three-page dossier that provides useful information about your child can help their babysitters, coaches, teachers, bus drivers, school support staff, neighbors, and relatives understand their limitations.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2007)
Do you think your child or student might have dyslexia? "Dyslexia Basics," a factsheet by International Dyslexia Association," tells you the definition, symptoms, causes and effects." Find out how to help.

By: Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), LD OnLine (2007)
If your child cannot read their textbooks, they need digital copies of their books. Schools now can use National Instructional Material Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) to get e-text. Learn the details that will help you advocate for your child so they can use NIMAS. And learn where to find the publishers and producers that provide e-text.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
When an advocate negotiates with the school on a special needs child's behalf, the odds are increased that the child will get an appropriate education. Learn who can advocate, what they do, and how you can get started advocating for your child.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)
Here are a dozen simple strategies to help your children keep the academic skills they learned during the school year. Support them as they read. Give them material that is motivating — and some of it should be easy. Help them enjoy books and feel pleasure — not pressure — from reading. The summer should be a relaxed time where their love of learning can flower.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Learning to read is a challenge for many kids, but most can become good readers if they get the right help. Parents have an important job in recognizing when a child is struggling and knowing how to find help. Here are some signs to look for and things to do if you suspect your child is having trouble reading.

By: Lynn Liontos (2007)
Did you know that kids whose parents are involved in their education have better grades, a better attitude toward school, and more appropriate school behavior than those with less involved parents? Consider trying a few of these tips — and make a big difference!

By: GreatSchools Editorial Staff (2007)
If you're thinking of hiring a private specialist to test your child for a learning disability, here are some key questions to ask yourself and the prospective evaluator.

By: Partnership for Learning (2006)
Get the basics on the benefits, challenges and costs of different kinds of tutoring services: private, tutoring centers, online tutors, and free Title I supplemental services.

By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
Tutoring offers kids the special one-on-one attention that busy teachers often can't provide. From simplehomework help to intensive work on basic skills, tutoring can offer just the boost your childneeds to succeed.

By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
When you see your child struggling, you want to jump in and help, but sometimes your instincts and desire aren't enough. When your child has trouble with schoolwork and a tutor is necessary, one of the biggest roadblocks to getting help is money.

By: Carole McGraw (2006)
Whether your child is lost in a haze of elementary grammar rules, sinking fast in a jumble of Newton's laws in middle school, or lost in the details of an AP biology class, you need help quickly, before your child falls way behind the class and never recovers. So, what exactly can you do....now?

By: Glenda Thorne (2006)
Effective and efficient memory is critical for reading and school success. Here are 10 strategies to help children develop their memories.

By: Deborah Taub (2006)
Professional school counselors can be more effective in their work with parents of students with disabilities — as well as with the students themselves, their teachers, and other students — if they understand parent perspectives. Parents' areas of concern are described, and implications for school counselors are discussed.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
Children with vocabulary weaknesses are especially vulnerable to difficulties with reading comprehension from the middle elementary grades onward. Vocabulary weaknesses may affect school achievement in many areas beyond reading, including written expression, mathematics, and performance in content subjects such as social studies and science.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents examples of accommodations that allow students with learning disabilities to show what they know without giving them an unfair advantage. Accommodations are divided into the following categories: how information is presented to the student, how the student can respond, timing of tests and lessons, the learning environment, and test scheduling.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
For English language learners, proper identification of learning disabilities can be crucial to success. The author offers practical tips for identifying learning disabilities and developing appropriate accommodations.

By: Society for Neuroscience (2006)

By: Elizabeth Crawford, Joseph K. Torgesen (2006)
Improving the effectiveness of interventions for struggling readers requires a school-level system for early identification of 'at risk' students and then providing those students with intensive interventions. Learn from Reading First schools with demonstrated success in reaching struggling readers.

By: Glenda Thorne, Alice Thomas, Candy Lawson (2005)
Here are 15 tactics that may help children enhance attention and manage attention problems.

By: Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Alejandro Brice (2005)
How can you tell when a student has a language-learning disability and when he or she is merely in the normal process of acquiring a second language?

By: Reading Rockets (2005)

Named "One of America's Top Doctors," Dr. Shaywitz is professor of pediatrics at Yale University School of Medicine and author of the bestseller Overcoming Dyslexia. On January 27, 2005, Reading Rockets hosted an online discussion with Dr. Shaywitz, who answered questions about dyslexia and other reading difficulties and responded to parents' concerns.



By: Joanne Meier, Karen Freck (2005)
Children come to our classrooms from so many different ability levels and backgrounds. As a teacher, it's important to recognize and know what to do to help a struggling reader.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005)

The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD). A brief overview of the approach is provided, including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs.



By: Kathryn Drummond (2005)
About 10 million children have difficulties learning to read. The good news is that more than 90 percent of struggling readers can overcome their difficulties if they receive appropriate treatment at early ages.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)
School psychologists play a critical role in the lives of children who are struggling to learn. More and more, for example, school psychologists are leaders in developing and carrying out the assessments and placements decisions that impact students from the beginning of their school careers. With your help, schools can reduce the number of students who lag behind grade level – and increase the number of successful readers.

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The specific signs of dyslexia, both weaknesses and strengths, vary widely. Problems with oral language, decoding, fluency, spelling, and handwriting are addressed, as well as strengths in higher order thinking skills.

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The earliest clues involve mostly spoken language. The very first clue to a language (and reading) problem may be delayed language. Once the child begins to speak, look for difficulties with rhyming, phonemic awareness, and the ability to read common one-syllable words.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
A look at three pivotal longitudinal studies that clearly show: Late bloomers are rare; skill deficits are almost always what prevent children from blooming as readers.

By: Laurie Fry (2004)
The parent-teacher conference can be a stressful time for both parents and teachers – even more so if your child possibly has a problem. This article offers strategies for getting the most out of the conference, and also includes stories from veteran teachers of successful (and not-so-successful) parent-teacher conferences.

By: Brenda Dyck (2004)
The promise of a successful year is the hope of every student and teacher. Educator Brenda Dyck shares the story of Stephen and ponders the importance of offering a fresh start to every student who enters her classroom.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
Early intervention works. Because it is also expensive, it's important to be able to identify the kids who are most at risk of reading failure. Thanks to a new generation of screening assessments, we can identify these students as early as kindergarten — and then invest in interventions for them.

By: Anne Svensen (2004)
Children who aren't motivated to read can benefit from support at home. Learn what parents can do to make reading a more enjoyable experience for struggling readers in this interview with Dr. Marie Carbo.

By: Suzanne Carreker (2004)
This article describes the most common characterists of dyslexia and other learning disorders, and what you can do if you suspect your child has a problem.

By: Kathleen Bulloch (2004)
Teachers are often asked to modify instruction to accommodate special needs students. In fact, all students will benefit from the following good teaching practices. The following article takes the mystery out of adapting materials and strategies for curriculum areas.

By: Kathleen Bulloch (2004)
Classrooms today have students with many special needs, and teachers are often directed to "modify as necessary." The following article takes the mystery out of modifying your teaching strategies with concrete examples that focus on students' organizational skills.

By: Sebastian Wren (2004)

There are many beliefs and a great deal of dogma associated with reading acquisition, and people are often reluctant to let go of their beliefs despite contradictory research evidence. Here are 10 of the most popular and most potentially pernicious myths that influence reading education.



By: Reading Rockets (2004)
What should you do if you think your child is having trouble with reading? Sometimes children just need more time, but sometimes they need extra help. Trust your instincts! You know your child best. If you think there's a problem, there probably is.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2004)
The U.S. Department of Education developed this brief guide for reading tutors. It lists ways that tutoring helps both the learner and the tutor, and provides practical tips that can help tutors be more effective in their work.

By: Virginia Berninger, Donna Rury Smith, Louise O'Donnell (2004)

This article discusses current research-supported instructional practices in reading and writing. It also reviews alternatives to ability-achievement discrepancy in identifying students for special education services, as well as introduces the idea that ability-achievement discrepancies should be based on specific cognitive factors that are relevant to specific kinds of learning disabilities rather than Full Scale IQ.



By: National Summer Learning Association (2004)
Research demonstrates that all students experience significant learning losses in procedural and factual knowledge during the summer months.

By: Tyler Currie (2003)
Everyone said his 10-year-old student would never learn to read. For a long time, he believed it, too.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
The following is a general list of risk factors for reading difficulties by grade level. Please note that the list is not all-inclusive and should be interpreted with reference to age and grade expectations.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
If a child's history suggests increased risk for reading difficulties, it is critical that he or she receive high-quality reading instruction, early intervention, parent support and special education, if needed.

By: Denise Johnson (2003)
Audiobooks have traditionally been used with second-language learners, learning-disabled students, and struggling readers or nonreaders. In many cases, audiobooks have proven successful in helping these students to access literature and enjoy books. But they have not been widely used with average, avid, or gifted readers. This article lists the benefits of audiobooks for all students.

By: LD OnLine (2002)
Motivation is key to school success. Just as the actor asks a director, "What is my motivation, for this scene?," the child turns to teachers, parents, and peers to discover the "why" of learning. Motivation is often defined as a need or drive that energizes behavior toward a goal.

By: Kathleen Ross Kidder (2002)
Many professionals are involved in the diagnosis of LD: psychologists, educational specialists, and other professionals who work in specialized fields such as speech and language. This article identifies licensure requirements and who can diagnose LD and/or ADHD.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2002)
The International Dyslexia Association prepared this fact sheet describing reasonable accommodations involving materials, interactive instruction, and student performance to will help children with learning problems in general education and special education classrooms.

By: Richard Allington (2002)
This article by Richard Allington provides a clear-eyed view of what he believes matters most in teaching kids to read – effective and expert teachers.

By: Jessica Snyder (2002)
We asked the parents and teachers who frequent our web site for their ideas about how to encourage kids, especially those who aren't excited about books, to do more reading. Thanks to all you tip-sters out there, we received tons of advice, which we've summarized in the seven tips below.

By: Jessica Blom-Hoffman, Julie F. Dwyer, Angela T. Clarke, Thomas J. Power (2002)
Learn how school psychologists can partner with reading specialists and classroom teachers to evaluate the benefits of early intervention reading programs in their districts.

By: Cynthia Warger (2001)
Many students with learning or reading disabilities find homework challenging. Here are five research-based strategies that teachers can use to help students.

By: Sharon Vaughn, Marie Tejero Hughes, Sally Watson Moody, Batya Elbaum (2001)
There are a variety of grouping formats that are effective for teaching reading to students with learning disabilities: whole class, small group, pairs, and one-on-one. Learn more about the research and implications for practice for using each format in the general education classroom.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
First and foremost, struggling readers need excellent reading instruction from their classroom teachers in order to overcome their difficulties. Many schools are also equipped to provide extra help to the children who need it.

By: Heather Wall (2001)
Parents and teachers can sympathize with struggling readers to a point, but they are usually far removed from the challenge of learning to read themselves. However, this reading specialist suffered a head injury and tells her story of what it was like to know how to decode but not to comprehend what she read.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
You may have a child in your life who isn't as successful with reading as you think he or she could be. The challenge is that not all reading difficulties look the same, and not all reading difficulties should be addressed in the same way.

By: Lori Rog, Paul Kropp (2001)
One of the keys to helping struggling readers is to provide them with books that they can and want to read. Fiction for struggling readers must have realistic characters, readable and convincing text, and a sense of the readers' interests and needs. Non-fiction books, newspapers, magazines, even comic books can hook students on reading.

By: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice (2001)
Many teachers feel that they do not have enough time in the school day to work one-on-one with every student. Classwide Peer Tutoring is a way for all students to get one-on-one help and enough time to practice and learn. This brief looks at what peer tutoring is, what studies show about the effectiveness of peer tutoring, and how parents and teachers can support the practice in the classroom.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling, Robert Sternberg (2001)

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
It's not an easy thing, learning to read. This article provides a brief overview of what is involved and what parents, teachers, and everyone else who touches the life of a child can do to help those who struggle.

By: International Reading Association (2000)
Because reading specialists have advanced degrees in reading, they are in a position to prevent reading failure at their schools. This position statement describes the roles reading specialists can play in instruction, assessment, and school leadership.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
When a child is having a language or reading problem, he just may need more time to learn language skills. Some children might have trouble seeing, hearing, or speaking, while others may have a learning disability. If you suspect a problem, it's important to get help quickly.

By: G. Reid Lyon (2000)
Children may struggle with reading for a variety of reasons, including limited experience with books, speech and hearing problems, and poor phonemic awareness.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
The special education process under IDEA is designed to ensure that each individual child's needs are carefully considered and addressed. Learn ten steps in the special education process, from evaluation to reviewing student progress.

By: Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (2000)
Parents are often the best educational advocates for their children, especially children with a learning disability. The Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (CCLD) has developed the following tips to help parents champion their child.

By: Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, Catherine Snow (1999)
Hispanic students in the United States are at especially high risk of reading difficulties. Despite progress over the past 15 to 20 years, they are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to read well below average for their age.

By: Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, Catherine Snow (1999)
Knowing which children are more likely to be at risk for reading problems allows for early intervention to prevent the majority of these problems from developing. Learn what group and individual factors make certain children at risk.

By: Mary Fitzsimmons (1998)
This article describes two processes that are essential to teaching beginning reading to students with learning disabilities: phonological awareness and word recognition, and provides tips for teaching these processes to students.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Socioeconomic differences are conventionally indexed by such demographic variables as household income and parents' education and occupation, alone or in some weighted combination.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
English language learners are at risk for future reading difficulties for a number of reasons. Here are some factors all teachers of ELLs should know.

By: Joseph K. Torgesen (1998)
Early identification is crucial when it comes to helping children who are having trouble learning to read. This seminal article by Joseph Torgesen explains the assessment process and reviews the more commonly used assessment tools.

By: Learning Disabilities Association of America (1998)
For the person with learning disabilities, the process of learning to read can break down with reading mechanics or comprehension, and at any of the specific skill levels.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Knowing children with a family history of difficulties are more likely to have trouble learning to read means that efforts can be made with these children to prevent difficulties from developing.

By: Susan Gruskin, Kim Silverman, Veda Bright (1997)
Parents who suspect their children have special needs can take several steps to make sure they get the support they need to help their children succeed. Find out some of these steps in these tips for parents.

"I'm wondering what to read next." — Matilda, Roald Dahl