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All Learning Disabilities articles

By: Reading Rockets (2014)
Let’s face it: Not all kids love to write. For some, every step of the writing process is difficult — including spelling, handwriting and getting organized ideas onto paper. In this edition of Growing Readers, you'll learn more about dysgraphia and how you can support your child's writing.

By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Learn more about the English spelling system, how spelling supports reading, why children with dyslexia and dysgraphia struggle, which words should be taught, and instruction that works.

By: Alise Brann, Tracy Gray, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2012)

Learn how technology tools can support struggling students and those with learning disabilities in acquiring background knowledge and vocabulary, improving their reading comprehension, and making connections between reading and writing.



By: Patti Ralabate, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2012)
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) provides the opportunity for all students to access, participate in, and progress in the general-education curriculum by reducing barriers to instruction. Learn more about how UDL offers options for how information is presented, how students respond or demonstrate their knowledge and skills, and how students are engaged in learning.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2012)
Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects a child's handwriting. Children with dysgraphia usually have other problems such as difficulty with written expression. Learn more about causes, the importance of early assessment, dysgraphia and spelling, and effective instructional strategies that strengthen written language skills.

By: Elaine Mulligan, National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2011)
Learn the answers to 10 commonly asked questions that families and educators of students with disabilities have about charter schools. You'll also find links to state-specific resources that can help you better understand how charter schools work in your individual state.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn about the common signs of dyslexia, how parents can support their child and celebrate their strengths, the role of assistive technology, how the latest brain research can help kids with dyslexia, and more.

By: Ruth Heitin (2011)
Learn how to write Individualized Education Plan (IEP) goals that are SMART (specific, measurable, use action words, realistic, and time-limited) and based on research-based educational practice.

By: Alise Brann, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2011)
One motivating, engaging, and inexpensive way to help build the foundational reading skills of students is through the use of closed-captioned and subtitled television shows and movies. These supports can help boost foundational reading skills, such as phonics, word recognition, and fluency.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
If your child has ADHD, paying attention for long periods of time can be a challenge. So, meet the challenge head-on — make reading time fun time for you and your child.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
You'll find sharing books together is a great way to bond with your son or daughter. Reading also helps your child's language development and listening skills when you talk about the story and ask questions. Large print books can help a child with mild to moderate vision loss discover the world of books and make tracking the words easier.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
Cerebral palsy can cause difficulty with muscle tone and control. Your child may have delays speaking or have speech that is hard to understand. Reading with your child and having your child name objects in the book or read aloud to you can strengthen his speech skills. You'll find sharing books together is a great way to bond with your son or daughter and help your child's development at the same time.

By: Reach Out and Read (2011)
Whether your child has mild or severe Autism Spectrum Disorder, making reading a fun activity can help your child's learning and social skills. You'll find sharing books together can be a good way to connect with your son or daughter. Reading also helps your child's language development and listening skills.

By: Kate Garnett (2010)
Classrooms can be perilous in a number of ways for students with learning disabilities. Here are some tips to remember when working with students with LD.

By: Kathy Ruhl, Charles Hughes (2010)
A review of the research on the effective use of homework for students with learning disabilities suggests that there are three big ideas for teachers to remember: (1) the best use of homework is to build proficiency in recently acquired skills or to maintain skills previously mastered; (2) homework should be individualized; and (3) teachers should evaluate homework and provide detailed feedback to students.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Speech recognition, also referred to as speech-to-text or voice recognition, is technology that recognizes speech, allowing voice to serve as the "main interface between the human and the computer." This Info Brief discusses how current speech recognition technology facilitates student learning, as well as how the technology can develop to advance learning in the future.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Our Top 8 back-to-school tips for parents emphasize communication, organization, and staying up-to-date on special education news.

By: Kandace Wernsing, Reading Rockets (2010)
Our top 10 back-to-school tips for special education teachers emphasize communication, organization, and a focus on student success.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)
The IEP guides the delivery of special education and related services and supplementary aids and supports for the child with a disability. Without a doubt, writing and implementing an effective IEP requires teamwork. So, who's on the team?

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: Paula Kluth (2010)
Reading comprehension is often a concern for the teachers of students with autism. The comprehension strategies described in this article may help some students gain comprehension skills and improve their ability to read and communicate about written material.

By: Paula Kluth (2010)
Some students identified with autism can participate successfully in whole-class rich literacy experiences, with the right kind of support. Learn about strategies for designing lessons that are appropriate, engaging, and challenging for every learner in the inclusive classroom.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
To be scientifically literate, students must be able to express themselves appropriately. Learn how to help struggling students master specific vocabulary and be able to use it in their science writing activities.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Science learning often involves creating abstract representations and models of processes that we are unable to observe with the naked eye. Learn more about visualizing, representing, and modeling to aid struggling learners.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
Knowing how to engage in signature scientific acts, such as formulating questions and using evidence in arguments is an important part of science learning. This InfoBrief from the National Center for Technology Innovation offers more information about using technology to support struggling students.

By: National Center for Technology Innovation (2010)
The type of physical tasks often present in many science lessons can present significant barriers for many students with learning disabilities or physical impairments. How can teachers find ways for these students to participate?

By: Family Center on Technology and Disability (2010)

By: Family Center on Technology and Disability (2010)
Assistive technology is any kind of technology that can be used to enhance the functional independence of a person with a disability. Learn more about Assistive Technology and ways your students might benefit from it.

By: Family Center on Technology and Disability (2010)
It is important for parents to understand the "language" of assistive technology so they can be informed advocates for their child's technology needs. The following glossary of terms can help parents learn about the kinds of assistive technologies that are currently available and how they can be used.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the Council on Children with Disabilities published a statement summarizing what is currently known about visual problems and dyslexia. The statement also covers what treatments are and are not recommended when diagnosing and treating vision problems, learning disabilities, and dyslexia.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)
If your child has a learning disability, he or she may benefit from assistive technology tools that play to their strengths and work around their challenges.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Lee Swanson (2009)
Research-based information and advice for sizing up reading programs and finding the right one for your child with a learning disability.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)
Learn about assistive technology tools — from abbreviation expanders to word-recognition software programs — that address your child's specific writing difficulties.

By: Charles A. MacArthur (2009)
Learn from an expert why some kids with learning disabilities struggle with writing and how some instructional approaches can help.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Marshall H. Raskind (2009)
Learn about assistive technology tools — from audiobooks to variable-speed tape recorders — that help students with reading.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
For almost 40 percent of kids, learning to read is a challenge. So in addition to talking, reading, and writing with their child, families play another important role — being on the lookout for early signs of possible trouble.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2009)

Learn more about where to find help if you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay. A developmental evaluation will be used to decide if your child needs early intervention services and/or a treatment plan specifically tailored to meet a child's individual needs.



By: America Reads at Bank Street College of Education (2009)
Tutors can play very important roles in the lives of the children they work with. Learn about these roles and the types of tutoring programs that are available to provide young readers with one-on-one support.

By: Alise Brann, Tracy Gray, Judy Zorfass, PowerUp WHAT WORKS (2009)
To help students become comfortable with multimedia, it is useful to incorporate it into your instruction wherever possible. Providing varied means of representing information (Universal Design for Learning) can help improve your students' access to complex texts.

By: Ania Siwek (2009)
A psychologist specializing in language-based learning disabilities explains how to talk to children about their LD: All the parts you need to be smart are in your brain. Nothing is missing or broken. The difference between your brain and one that doesn't have an LD is that your brain gets "traffic jams" on certain highways.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Heading off to kindergarten is a big event for all kids and parents. For young children who have struggled socially or academically during preschool, it is a transition that needs careful planning and attention. Below are four suggestions for parents of children who may need extra help making a successful move to kindergarten.

By: Jerry Pinkney (2009)
Jill Lauren's That's Like Me! is a book about 15 students with disabilities who face challenges in school but express their creativity and talents through hobbies. In the foreword, excerpted here, children's book illustrator Jerry Pinkney describes growing up with two personas: Jerry the gifted artist and Jerry the struggling reader.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Researchers have identified three kinds of developmental reading disabilities that often overlap but that can be separate and distinct: (1) phonological deficit, (2) processing speed/orthographic processing deficit, and (3) comprehension deficit.

By: Dale S. Brown (2008)
The holiday season is a time for family togetherness, fun, and friendship. But children who struggle with social and behavioral problems can feel lonely and excluded during this happy time. This article gives you a dozen ways to help your child join the fun.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Learn what to look for as your child's handwriting skills begin to develop, as well as some signs and symptoms of dysgraphia — a learning disability that affects a child's handwriting and ability to hold a pencil or crayon.

By: Voice of America (2008)
This article describes the basic facts about dyslexia, a learning disability that most commonly affects reading, spelling, and writing.

By: LD OnLine (2008)
Learning disabilities (LD) come in several forms. Learn more about them, how they're identified, and what types of instruction support students with LD.

By: Jerome J. Schultz (2008)
The director of Learning Lab at Lesley University, explains that dyslexia is regarded as a neurobiological condition that is genetic in origin, which means it can run in families.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2008)
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a complex subject and states and districts have a lot of discretion with the implementation of this three-step, research-based approach to intervention and placement. Learn about some of the common misconceptions of the RTI process and read about additional RTI web sources.

By: Susan Hall (2008)
How do parents know if their child's reading delay is a real problem or simply a "developmental lag?" How long should parents wait before seeking help if their child is struggling with reading? Susan Hall answers these questions.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2008)
Spelling is a challenge for people with dyslexia. The International Dyslexia Association provides a fact sheet explaining why people with dyslexia have trouble spelling, how to find out the reasons a particular child has this difficulty, and how to help children with dyslexia spell better.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Children who struggle with reading often need extra help. This help usually comes from the school, but some parents choose to look outside the school for professionals who can assess, diagnose, tutor, or provide other education services.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2008)
When dealing with a bureaucracy — and school districts are bureaucracies — you need to keep detailed records. Logs, journals, and calendars provide answers and support memories and testimonies. This article provides examples of how to keep a paper trail.

By: Voice of America (2008)
Dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the brain's ability to process and understand the meaning of numbers. Learn about the symptoms and what can be done to help.

By: Voice of America (2008)
Teachers and parents should suspect dysgraphia if a child's handwriting is unusually difficult to read. Find out more about this neurological problem that can cause physical pain as some children struggle to write.

By: Larry B. Silver, M.D. (2008)
If you think your child might have a learning disability, this article will help. Dr. Larry Silver tells parents the clues to look for in pre-school and elementary school children. Then the article talks about how to get a "psychoeducational evaluation" to find out for sure.

By: Regina G. Richards (2008)
Eli, a young boy, tells us what it is like to have dysgraphia. Regina Richards, a well-known expert on dysgraphia (and Eli's mom), explains how to help children who struggle with the challenges Eli describes. Practical techniques discussed include POWER: Prepare, Organize, Write, Edit, Revise.

By: Rick Lavoie (2008)
Teachers: How do you convince your principal, fellow teachers, and other school staff to help the student in your class who has a learning disability? Rick Lavoie, world-renowned expert, speaker, and author on teaching children with LD, tells you how to get your voice heard. Learn how to handle common road blocks and become a proactive and successful advocate in the hallways, the teacher's lounge, and the administrative suite.

By: Regina G. Richards (2008)
This article discusses one component of writing mechanics — finesse with sound/symbol correspondence. It describes a method, called Memory Foundations for Reading, that can be used by a parent with a single child or a teacher with a group and which helps children use many senses to recall letter sounds.

By: The Access Center (2008)
Peer tutoring links high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement for structured learning. It promotes academic gains as well as social enhancement. This brief discusses three research-supported peer tutoring strategies: Cross-Age Tutoring; Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS); and Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT).

By: Access Center (2008)
Writing is a highly complex language skill. Without skilled, systematic instruction, many students — particularly those with disabilities — may not become proficient writers. At stake is access to the general education curriculum. This brief discusses developmental stages, why writing may pose particular challenges for students with disabilities, and what areas should be the focus for remediation.

By: Access Center (2008)
This brief provides an overview of computer-assisted instruction and looks at how writing software can help students with developing ideas, organizing, outlining, brainstorming, and minimizing the physical effort spent on writing so that students can pay attention to organization and content.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
Learn to develop the evidence you need to support your belief that your child is not receiving the right help in school. Peter and Pamela Wright, from Wrightslaw, tell you how to interpret and chart your child's test scores, graph your child's progress, and successfully communicate with the educators who make decisions about your child.

By: Dale S. Brown, Karen Ford (2007)
Concrete suggestions for teachers who want to communicate well with all of their students, especially English language learners and students with learning disabilities.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2007)
Do you think your child or student might have dyslexia? "Dyslexia Basics," a factsheet by International Dyslexia Association," tells you the definition, symptoms, causes and effects." Find out how to help.

By: Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), LD OnLine (2007)
If your child cannot read their textbooks, they need digital copies of their books. Schools now can use National Instructional Material Accessibility Standard (NIMAS) to get e-text. Learn the details that will help you advocate for your child so they can use NIMAS. And learn where to find the publishers and producers that provide e-text.

By: David Gordon (2007)
Put together a summer listening program for your child. Listening is an engaging way to learn, so your child may love listening to books and other written documents. Have them listen to music and stage plays, comedy routines, and other works. Point out background sounds, such as the way the peppy tune on a sound track adds fun and humor to an adventure tale. Learning to listen is particularly helpful to children with learning disabilities.

By: Mary Beth Klotz, Andrea Canter (2007)
Learn what questions to ask about Response to Intervention (RTI), an approach to helping struggling learners that is gaining momentum in schools across the country. This article from the National Association of School Psychologists tells you the most important features of the process, key terms, and RTI's relationship to special education evaluation.

By: FPG Child Development Institute (2007)
Can teachers and parents of preschoolers identify learning problems early enough to prevent problems later in school? The Recognition & Response model helps adults know what to look for and how to help, so that later remediation and special education may not be necessary.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2007)
When an advocate negotiates with the school on a special needs child's behalf, the odds are increased that the child will get an appropriate education. Learn who can advocate, what they do, and how you can get started advocating for your child.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)
Here are a dozen simple strategies to help your children keep the academic skills they learned during the school year. Support them as they read. Give them material that is motivating — and some of it should be easy. Help them enjoy books and feel pleasure — not pressure — from reading. The summer should be a relaxed time where their love of learning can flower.

By: Roxanne F. Hudson, Leslie High, Stephanie Al Otaiba (2007)

The identification of a child with dyslexia is a difficult process, but there are ways that parents and teachers can learn more about the reading difficulty and support the child's learning.



By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Learning to read is a challenge for many kids, but most can become good readers if they get the right help. Parents have an important job in recognizing when a child is struggling and knowing how to find help. Here are some signs to look for and things to do if you suspect your child is having trouble reading.

By: The Access Center (2007)
The literacy-rich environment emphasizes the importance of speaking, reading, and writing in the learning of all students. This involves the selection of materials that will facilitate language and literacy opportunities; reflection and thought regarding classroom design; and intentional instruction and facilitation by teachers and staff.

By: Dale S. Brown (2007)
Three research based practices help students with learning disabilities improve their writing. Read this interview with Steve Graham, author of Writing Next: Effective Strategies to Improve Writing of Adolescents in Middle and High School who explains how you can help your students succeed in communicating through the written word.

By: GreatSchools Editorial Staff (2007)
If you're thinking of hiring a private specialist to test your child for a learning disability, here are some key questions to ask yourself and the prospective evaluator.

By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
When you see your child struggling, you want to jump in and help, but sometimes your instincts and desire aren't enough. When your child has trouble with schoolwork and a tutor is necessary, one of the biggest roadblocks to getting help is money.

By: National Association of School Psychologists (2006)
School psychologists working in districts that use Response to Intervention (RTI) can offer expertise at many levels, from system-wide program design to specific assessment and intervention efforts with individual students.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2006)

The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities developed an overview on screening, diagnosing and serving children age four or younger. The document was developed for researchers, administrators, and people who need an academic overview.



By: Deborah Taub (2006)
Professional school counselors can be more effective in their work with parents of students with disabilities — as well as with the students themselves, their teachers, and other students — if they understand parent perspectives. Parents' areas of concern are described, and implications for school counselors are discussed.

By: Amy Milsom (2006)
The school experiences of students with disabilities can be positively or negatively influenced by the attitudes and behaviors of students and staff and by general school policies. School counselors can take the lead in assessing school climate in relation to students with disabilities and initiating interventions or advocating for change when appropriate. This article provides an overview of factors to consider in creating positive school experiences for students with disabilities and suggestions for intervention efforts.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
Studies have indicated that as many as 40-75% of children with specific language impairment will have problems in learning to read. This article offers tips for parents and educators to help learners develop their language skills.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
Students must pass high stakes tests to graduate high school. These tests are a major barrier for students with learning disabilities who often do not test well. Accommodations can help. Learn how to help children with learning disabilities do well on these tests.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
When a doctor develops a treatment plan for a sick child, the doctor uses objective data from diagnostic tests. Your child's individualized education program is similar to a medical treatment plan, and you need objective tests to know that your child is acquiring reading, writing, and arithmetic skills.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
This article explains how to consider your child's present levels of academic performance and use baseline data to develop goals and objectives for a individualized education program.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Too often annual goals listed in an individualized education program are not specific and measurable. Find out how to avoid this pitfall.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Learn what makes a strong individualized education program (IEP) and the five components of a SMART IEP.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Individualized education program (IEP) goals cannot be broad statements about what a child will accomplish. Goals that cannot be measured are non-goals. Learn how to help the IEP team devise specific, measurable, realistic goals.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
One of the most misunderstood topics in reading instruction involves the extent to which children should be encouraged to rely on context cues in reading.

By: Mary Ruth Coleman, Virginia Buysse, Jennifer Neitzel (2006)
Learn about an early intervening system being developed for young children, called Recognition and Response, designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities as early as possible, beginning at age 3 or 4, before they experience school failure and before they are referred for formal evaluation and possible placement in special education.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
Children with vocabulary weaknesses are especially vulnerable to difficulties with reading comprehension from the middle elementary grades onward. Vocabulary weaknesses may affect school achievement in many areas beyond reading, including written expression, mathematics, and performance in content subjects such as social studies and science.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents examples of accommodations that allow students with learning disabilities to show what they know without giving them an unfair advantage. Accommodations are divided into the following categories: how information is presented to the student, how the student can respond, timing of tests and lessons, the learning environment, and test scheduling.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
The National Center for Learning Disabilities presents a basic fact sheet on dyscalculia, a term which refers to a wide range of learning disabilities involving math. The following questions are answered: What are the effects of dyscalculia in early childhood, during the school years, and on teenagers and adults? What are the warning signs? How is dyscalculia identified and treated?

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2006)
For English language learners, proper identification of learning disabilities can be crucial to success. The author offers practical tips for identifying learning disabilities and developing appropriate accommodations.

By: Nicole Strangeman, Chuck Hitchcock, Tracey Hall, Grace Meo (2006)

Helping struggling readers in the general classroom is a challenge, but The Access Center offers a solution. By using Response-to-Instruction’s tiered approach and Universal Design’s equal access philosophy, you can bridge the gap so that you are truly leaving no child behind.



By: CAST (2006)

Response to Instruction (RTI) and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are two great ideas for making sure the curriculum reaches all students. Learn about how you can implement these ideas as part of your regular routine in the general education classroom.



By: Center for Implementing Technology in Education (CITEd) (2006)
Technology—and especially the subset of technology tools known as assistive technology—can be an effective element of the writing curriculum for students with disabilities. Assistive technology (AT) can be defined as a technology that allows someone to accomplish a critical educational or life task. Since writing is so integral to school success, AT is often indicated to assist students with disabilities. In this article, CITEd looks at how technology can support students' writing.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)
Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing abilities. Learn the warning signs and strategies that can help. There are techniques for teaching and accommodating early writers, young students, or help yourself if you struggle with dysgraphia.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2006)

By: G. Emerson Dickman (2006)
RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach, rather it is a process that aims to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction that works best for students. This article provides a quick overview of RTI as it relates to reading.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2005)
Spelling difficulties can be enduring in individuals with reading disabilities, sometimes even after reading has been successfully remediated. Addressing spelling difficulties is important, because poor spelling can hamper writing and can convey a negative impression even when the content of the writing is excellent.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)

Named "One of America's Top Doctors," Dr. Shaywitz is professor of pediatrics at Yale University School of Medicine and author of the bestseller Overcoming Dyslexia. On January 27, 2005, Reading Rockets hosted an online discussion with Dr. Shaywitz, who answered questions about dyslexia and other reading difficulties and responded to parents' concerns.



By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
Assessment accommodations help people with learning disabilities display their skills accurately on examinations. Teachers, learn how to test the true knowledge of your students. Don't test their ability to write quickly if you want to see their science skills! Parents, these pointers will help you assure that your children are tested fairly.

By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
If a Title I school repeatedly underperforms, federal law provides opportunities for students to change schools or obtain additional instructional support. This parent advocacy brief looks at the information parents of students with disabilities need to know and understand in order to maximize these options.

By: Candace Cortiella (2005)
The No Child Left Behind law requires each school test students in Reading/Language Arts & Math each year in grades 3-8, and at least once more in grades 10-12. In some cases, children eligible for Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) services may be able to access testing accommodations or even alternate tests, but parents need to fully understand the implications and potential consequences of participation in the various testing options.

By: Joanne Meier, Karen Freck (2005)
Children come to our classrooms from so many different ability levels and backgrounds. As a teacher, it's important to recognize and know what to do to help a struggling reader.

By: The Access Center (2005)
Learn about “computer-assisted instruction” (CAI) and the ways in which it enhances teacher instruction.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) is our nation's special education law. Below you'll find important information about IDEA 2004, which went into effect on July 1, 2005.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005)

The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD). A brief overview of the approach is provided, including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs.



By: Kathryn Drummond (2005)
About 10 million children have difficulties learning to read. The good news is that more than 90 percent of struggling readers can overcome their difficulties if they receive appropriate treatment at early ages.

By: Amanda Fenlon (2005)
Entering kindergarten can a joyful but also an anxious time, particularly for parents of children with disabilities. These best practices can help make for a smoother transition: using a collaborative team approach to involve families, setting transition goals, and focusing on the needs and strengths of individual children.

By: Henry Winkler (2005)
Actor and author Henry Winkler reminisces about how dyslexia impacted his school years in this article from Highlights for Children magazine. "Now I know," he writes, "that even if a person learns differently, he or she can still be filled with greatness."

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The specific signs of dyslexia, both weaknesses and strengths, vary widely. Problems with oral language, decoding, fluency, spelling, and handwriting are addressed, as well as strengths in higher order thinking skills.

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The earliest clues involve mostly spoken language. The very first clue to a language (and reading) problem may be delayed language. Once the child begins to speak, look for difficulties with rhyming, phonemic awareness, and the ability to read common one-syllable words.

By: Sally M. Reis, Robert Colbert (2004)

Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in elementary and secondary school. This article looks at what kinds of support students with this profile need, and how school counselors can provide it.



By: Brenda Dyck (2004)
The promise of a successful year is the hope of every student and teacher. Educator Brenda Dyck shares the story of Stephen and ponders the importance of offering a fresh start to every student who enters her classroom.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
Early intervention works. Because it is also expensive, it's important to be able to identify the kids who are most at risk of reading failure. Thanks to a new generation of screening assessments, we can identify these students as early as kindergarten — and then invest in interventions for them.

By: Suzanne Carreker (2004)
This article describes the most common characterists of dyslexia and other learning disorders, and what you can do if you suspect your child has a problem.

By: Kathleen Bulloch (2004)
Classrooms today have students with many special needs, and teachers are often directed to "modify as necessary." The following article takes the mystery out of modifying your teaching strategies with concrete examples that focus on students' organizational skills.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2004)
If your child or student is a "poor" listener, frequently misunderstands speech, and has difficulty following directions, read this article. Learn symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder, how it is diagnosed, and what can be done about it.

By: Teri James Bellis (2004)
This article, from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, distinguishes auditory processing disorder from other disorders. Symptoms and treatment are described. An explanation is provided of the role of the multidisciplinary team and the role of the audiologist, which is the only profession that can legitimately diagnose auditory processing disorders.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
What should you do if you think your child is having trouble with reading? Sometimes children just need more time, but sometimes they need extra help. Trust your instincts! You know your child best. If you think there's a problem, there probably is.

By: Virginia Berninger, Donna Rury Smith, Louise O'Donnell (2004)

This article discusses current research-supported instructional practices in reading and writing. It also reviews alternatives to ability-achievement discrepancy in identifying students for special education services, as well as introduces the idea that ability-achievement discrepancies should be based on specific cognitive factors that are relevant to specific kinds of learning disabilities rather than Full Scale IQ.



By: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2004)
Children with auditory processing disorder (APD) often do not recognized the subtle differences between sounds in words because a dysfunction makes it difficult for the brain to interpret the information. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders presents basic information on symptoms, diagnosis, and current research of APD.

By: Martha Randolph Carr (2004)
This is a cautionary tale, not just for people who have no real idea of what a learning disability is and probably suspect the whole thing is an overindulgent scam, but also for any parent of a child struggling mightily through school.

By: Tyler Currie (2003)
Everyone said his 10-year-old student would never learn to read. For a long time, he believed it, too.

By: Marianne S. Meyer (2003)
Parents, does your child need to be evaluated for a learning disability? If so, read how to find the best professional, prepare for evaluation, and get the most information from the experience.

By: LD OnLine (2002)
Motivation is key to school success. Just as the actor asks a director, "What is my motivation, for this scene?," the child turns to teachers, parents, and peers to discover the "why" of learning. Motivation is often defined as a need or drive that energizes behavior toward a goal.

By: Kathleen Ross Kidder (2002)
Many professionals are involved in the diagnosis of LD: psychologists, educational specialists, and other professionals who work in specialized fields such as speech and language. This article identifies licensure requirements and who can diagnose LD and/or ADHD.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2002)
The International Dyslexia Association prepared this fact sheet describing reasonable accommodations involving materials, interactive instruction, and student performance to will help children with learning problems in general education and special education classrooms.

By: Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, Lynn Larsen (2001)
This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills: (a) providing effective writing instruction, (b) tailoring instruction to meet the individual needs,(c) intervening early, (d) expecting that each child will learn to write, (e) identifying and addressing roadblocks to writing, and (f) employing technologies.

By: Melissa Keller (2001)
Handwriting is a complex skill that is not often taught directly. It is not unusual for some students with disabilities to have difficulty with handwriting. These students may also have sensory integration problems. Handwriting Club is a format that provides direct instruction in handwriting combined with sensory integration activities. This article describes all the steps and materials necessary to organize and conduct a handwriting club.

By: Cynthia Warger (2001)
Many students with learning or reading disabilities find homework challenging. Here are five research-based strategies that teachers can use to help students.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
First and foremost, struggling readers need excellent reading instruction from their classroom teachers in order to overcome their difficulties. Many schools are also equipped to provide extra help to the children who need it.

By: Heather Wall (2001)
Parents and teachers can sympathize with struggling readers to a point, but they are usually far removed from the challenge of learning to read themselves. However, this reading specialist suffered a head injury and tells her story of what it was like to know how to decode but not to comprehend what she read.

By: Mary Ann Zehr (2001)
There are many children who are eligible for both special education and English as a Second Language instruction, but few models exist for how to serve these children well. Learn about a program in Clark County, Nevada in which dually trained teachers provide overlapping instruction to meet both these needs.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
Find answers to frequently asked questions about writing instruction.

By: Dr. Deborah Moncrieff (2001)
Children with dyslexia are often referred to the audiologist to be evaluated for auditory processing disorder (APD). The relationship between dyslexia and APD is can be confusing, and this article helps professionals untangle the symptoms of the different difficulties.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling, Robert Sternberg (2001)

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
It's not an easy thing, learning to read. This article provides a brief overview of what is involved and what parents, teachers, and everyone else who touches the life of a child can do to help those who struggle.

By: Joanna P. Williams (2000)
Some children can master decoding and still be poor comprehenders. Learn what interventions have been found to help these children read narrative and expository texts more strategically.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
From annual goals to special education services, there are certain categories of information required by law to be included in a student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Learn what these categories are in this overview of the content of IEP's.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
When a child is having a language or reading problem, he just may need more time to learn language skills. Some children might have trouble seeing, hearing, or speaking, while others may have a learning disability. If you suspect a problem, it's important to get help quickly.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
Parents and teachers as well as other professionals are required by law to be involved in writing a student's IEP. Find out about the members of an IEP team and the roles they play.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
The special education process under IDEA is designed to ensure that each individual child's needs are carefully considered and addressed. Learn ten steps in the special education process, from evaluation to reviewing student progress.

By: Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (2000)
Parents are often the best educational advocates for their children, especially children with a learning disability. The Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (CCLD) has developed the following tips to help parents champion their child.

By: National Institute for Urban School Improvement (2000)
Inclusion means ensuring that children with disabilities go to school with their non-disabled peers, while providing them with the individual instruction and support they need. In this article, read about inclusion and how it differs from mainstreaming.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2000)
Dyslexia is the most common cause of reading, writing and spelling difficulties. This article provides a brief overview list of typical signs of dyslexia in preschool and kindergarten.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Your child may be eligible for special services that will help him or her succeed as a reader. Find out basic information about special education and which children are eligible for receiving special education services.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Parents who have a child they suspect has a disability are likely to have many questions about special education. Find answers to commonly asked questions about special education eligibility, IEP's, and re-evaluation in this guide for parents.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Evaluation is used to identify the children who are eligible for special education and the type of help they need. Find out four steps in the evaluation process, from analyzing known information to developing a program.

By: Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, Catherine Snow (1999)
Knowing which children are more likely to be at risk for reading problems allows for early intervention to prevent the majority of these problems from developing. Learn what group and individual factors make certain children at risk.

By: Learning Disabilities Association of America (1998)
For the person with learning disabilities, the process of learning to read can break down with reading mechanics or comprehension, and at any of the specific skill levels.

By: David J. Chard, Jean Osborn (1998)

Many teachers will be using supplemental phonics and word-recognition materials to enhance reading instruction for their students. In this article, the authors provide guidelines for determining the accessibility of these phonics and word recognition programs.



By: Susan Gruskin, Kim Silverman, Veda Bright (1997)
Parents who suspect their children have special needs can take several steps to make sure they get the support they need to help their children succeed. Find out some of these steps in these tips for parents.

By: Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (1997)
The most common learning disability is difficulty with language and reading. Here are some warning signs of learning disabilities to look for in preschool and elementary school children.

By: Stephen Isaacson (1996)

On-going assessment of writing is integral to the effective teaching of writing to students with learning disabilities. Curriculum-based assessments can be used to assess the writing process and product and should take into account purpose as well. The writing process can be assessed through observational and self-observational checklists. The writing product can be evaluated on five product factors: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary. Writing samples also should be assessed across a variety of purposes for writing to give a complete picture of a student's writing performance across different text structures and genres. These simple classroom measures can fulfill various functions of assessment including: identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress.



By: Judy Zorfass, Alise Brann, PowerUp WHAT WORKS
Learn about specific strategies you can use to differentiate instruction to help your students overcome fluency problems, as well technology tools that can support development of fluency skills.

"The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more you learn, the more places you'll go." — Dr. Seuss