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All Intervention and Prevention articles

By: National Center on Student Progress Monitoring (2012)
The National Center on Intensive Intervention has created a chart of scientifically based tools to measure students' progress. Determine which one best fits your school's needs.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Preschool teachers and child care providers play a critical role in promoting literacy, preventing reading difficulties, and preparing young children for kindergarten. Learn more about the characteristics of a quality preschool program, activities that build a solid foundation for reading, and how to advocate for your preschool child if you suspect learning delays.

By: Corrie Kelly (2011)
If you are planning to purchase an intervention program for instruction, get as much information as you can about a program's benefits and effectiveness. This article provides basic comparative information about a range of commercially available intervention programs.

By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)
Learn more about the four recommended practices in Response to Intervention (RTI): universal screening; progress monitoring and differentiation; systematic skill instruction; and system-wide implementation.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)
The IEP guides the delivery of special education and related services and supplementary aids and supports for the child with a disability. Without a doubt, writing and implementing an effective IEP requires teamwork. So, who's on the team?

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: Sharon Vaughn, Alba Ortiz (2010)
This article briefly highlights the knowledge base on reading and RTI for ELLs, and provides preliminary support for the use of practices related to RTI with this population.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Ophthalmology, and the Council on Children with Disabilities published a statement summarizing what is currently known about visual problems and dyslexia. The statement also covers what treatments are and are not recommended when diagnosing and treating vision problems, learning disabilities, and dyslexia.

By: Ruth Sylvester, Wendy-lou Greenidge (2009)
While some young writers may struggle with traditional literacy, tapping into new literacies like digital storytelling may boost motivation and scaffold understanding of traditional literacies. Three types of struggling writers are introduced followed by descriptions of ways digital storytelling can support their development.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Parents and caregivers are often the first to notice when their child may be showing signs of delayed development. Get answers and advice with this easy-to-understand information about developmental delays.

By: Kristin Stanberry, Lee Swanson (2009)
Research-based information and advice for sizing up reading programs and finding the right one for your child with a learning disability.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
When the back-to-school bell starts ringing, parents often hear and read school-related terms that are unfamiliar to them. Below are three terms and descriptions related to reading instruction that may help give you a better understanding of what's happening in your child's classroom and what it all means for your young learner.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
For almost 40 percent of kids, learning to read is a challenge. So in addition to talking, reading, and writing with their child, families play another important role — being on the lookout for early signs of possible trouble.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Once your child moves into first, second, and third grade, being able to read fluently and comprehend what he or she reads become critical for future success in school.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2009)

Learn more about where to find help if you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay. A developmental evaluation will be used to decide if your child needs early intervention services and/or a treatment plan specifically tailored to meet a child's individual needs.



By: America Reads at Bank Street College of Education (2009)
Tutors can play very important roles in the lives of the children they work with. Learn about these roles and the types of tutoring programs that are available to provide young readers with one-on-one support.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that in tier 3 of Response To Intervention, schools provide provide intensive instruction on a daily basis that promotes the development of the various components of reading proficiency to students who show minimal progress after reasonable time. It also provides some specific features that should be considered in carrying out this recommendation.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that students in tier 2 of RTI be monitored at least monthly, and use this data to determine if and how primary grade students may need additional reading instructional support.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
The What Works Clearninghouse reviewed the research available about using Response To Intervention to help primary grade students overcome reading struggles. WWC's recommendation for tier 2 of RTI is to provide intensive, systematic instruction on up to three foundational reading skills in small groups to students.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
After reviewing the research, the What Works Clearninghouse recommends that in tier 1 of Response To Intervention, schools provide differentiated reading instruction for all students based on assessments of students' current reading levels.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
This is a checklist to help educators carry out the five recommendations made in the What Works Clearninghouse report Assisting Students Struggling with Reading: Response to Intervention (RTI) and Multi-Tier Intervention in the Primary Grades.

By: What Works Clearinghouse (2009)
According to research, the Education Department's What Works Clearinghouse finds that the first step in using Response To Intervention to help early elementary-aged students learn to read is to screen all students and regularly monitor students who are at elevated risk of reading problems.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)
Answers to frequently asked questions on how to help children with communication disorders, particularly in regards to speaking, listening, reading, and writing.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2008)
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a complex subject and states and districts have a lot of discretion with the implementation of this three-step, research-based approach to intervention and placement. Learn about some of the common misconceptions of the RTI process and read about additional RTI web sources.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Children who struggle with reading often need extra help. This help usually comes from the school, but some parents choose to look outside the school for professionals who can assess, diagnose, tutor, or provide other education services.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2008)
When dealing with a bureaucracy — and school districts are bureaucracies — you need to keep detailed records. Logs, journals, and calendars provide answers and support memories and testimonies. This article provides examples of how to keep a paper trail.

By: Voice of America (2008)
Teachers and parents should suspect dysgraphia if a child's handwriting is unusually difficult to read. Find out more about this neurological problem that can cause physical pain as some children struggle to write.

By: National Association of School Psychologists (2008)
In this statement, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) identifies the characteristics of students more likely to be retained and the impact of retention at the secondary school level, late adolescence, and early adulthood. NASP also provides a long list of alternatives to retention and social promotion.

By: Larry B. Silver, M.D. (2008)
If you think your child might have a learning disability, this article will help. Dr. Larry Silver tells parents the clues to look for in pre-school and elementary school children. Then the article talks about how to get a "psychoeducational evaluation" to find out for sure.

By: Rick Lavoie (2008)
Teachers: How do you convince your principal, fellow teachers, and other school staff to help the student in your class who has a learning disability? Rick Lavoie, world-renowned expert, speaker, and author on teaching children with LD, tells you how to get your voice heard. Learn how to handle common road blocks and become a proactive and successful advocate in the hallways, the teacher's lounge, and the administrative suite.

By: Access Center (2008)
Writing is a highly complex language skill. Without skilled, systematic instruction, many students — particularly those with disabilities — may not become proficient writers. At stake is access to the general education curriculum. This brief discusses developmental stages, why writing may pose particular challenges for students with disabilities, and what areas should be the focus for remediation.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Studies show that screening English language learners for abilities in phonological processing, letter knowledge, and word and text reading will help identify those who are progressing well and/or who require additional instructional support.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Providing small-group reading instruction in five core reading elements (phonological awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) can really help English language learners in the elementary grades.

By: Mary Beth Klotz, Andrea Canter (2007)
Learn what questions to ask about Response to Intervention (RTI), an approach to helping struggling learners that is gaining momentum in schools across the country. This article from the National Association of School Psychologists tells you the most important features of the process, key terms, and RTI's relationship to special education evaluation.

By: FPG Child Development Institute (2007)
Can teachers and parents of preschoolers identify learning problems early enough to prevent problems later in school? The Recognition & Response model helps adults know what to look for and how to help, so that later remediation and special education may not be necessary.

By: Lynn S. Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs (2007)
Use Curriculum-Based Measurement to make sure students are on track for academic success by charting their trajectory of improvement all the way through the school year. CBM calculates rate of improvement during the first month of school and determines how much a student will need to improve each month to reach benchmark goals.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Learning to read is a challenge for many kids, but most can become good readers if they get the right help. Parents have an important job in recognizing when a child is struggling and knowing how to find help. Here are some signs to look for and things to do if you suspect your child is having trouble reading.

By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
Tutoring offers kids the special one-on-one attention that busy teachers often can't provide. From simplehomework help to intensive work on basic skills, tutoring can offer just the boost your childneeds to succeed.

By: Partnership for Learning (2006)
Get the basics on the benefits, challenges and costs of different kinds of tutoring services: private, tutoring centers, online tutors, and free Title I supplemental services.

By: Lisamarie Sanders (2006)
When you see your child struggling, you want to jump in and help, but sometimes your instincts and desire aren't enough. When your child has trouble with schoolwork and a tutor is necessary, one of the biggest roadblocks to getting help is money.

By: Carole McGraw (2006)
Whether your child is lost in a haze of elementary grammar rules, sinking fast in a jumble of Newton's laws in middle school, or lost in the details of an AP biology class, you need help quickly, before your child falls way behind the class and never recovers. So, what exactly can you do....now?

By: National Association of School Psychologists (2006)
School psychologists working in districts that use Response to Intervention (RTI) can offer expertise at many levels, from system-wide program design to specific assessment and intervention efforts with individual students.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2006)

The National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities developed an overview on screening, diagnosing and serving children age four or younger. The document was developed for researchers, administrators, and people who need an academic overview.



By: American Federation of Teachers (2006)
There are over two dozen individually administered screening tools produced for the primary grades. Considering their subject matter and purpose, schools must decide which assessment best fits their needs. This article gives an overview of the screening tools and the kind of information they provide.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
When a doctor develops a treatment plan for a sick child, the doctor uses objective data from diagnostic tests. Your child's individualized education program is similar to a medical treatment plan, and you need objective tests to know that your child is acquiring reading, writing, and arithmetic skills.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
This article explains how to consider your child's present levels of academic performance and use baseline data to develop goals and objectives for a individualized education program.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Too often annual goals listed in an individualized education program are not specific and measurable. Find out how to avoid this pitfall.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Learn what makes a strong individualized education program (IEP) and the five components of a SMART IEP.

By: Peter W. D. Wright, Pamela Darr Wright (2006)
Individualized education program (IEP) goals cannot be broad statements about what a child will accomplish. Goals that cannot be measured are non-goals. Learn how to help the IEP team devise specific, measurable, realistic goals.

By: Mary Ruth Coleman, Virginia Buysse, Jennifer Neitzel (2006)
Learn about an early intervening system being developed for young children, called Recognition and Response, designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities as early as possible, beginning at age 3 or 4, before they experience school failure and before they are referred for formal evaluation and possible placement in special education.

By: Kathleen McLane (2006)
Is your school planning to implement student progress monitoring (SPM)? Are you thinking of using it in your classroom? If so, consider a number of factors to make SPM an integral part of classroom activities, rather than a series of isolated assessments unconnected to other parts of the learning experience. This brief offers some suggestions on how to use SPM in an integrated way.

By: Barbara J. Ehren, Judith Montgomery, Judy Rudebusch, Kathleen Whitmire (2006)
Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) can play a number of important roles in using RTI to identify children with disabilities and provide needed instruction to struggling students in both general education and special education settings. But these roles will require some fundamental changes in the way SLPs engage in assessment and intervention activities.

By: CAST (2006)

Response to Instruction (RTI) and Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are two great ideas for making sure the curriculum reaches all students. Learn about how you can implement these ideas as part of your regular routine in the general education classroom.



By: Jacob Milner (2006)
Handheld formative assessment technology provides teachers with a virtually real-time picture on which students need help, where they need it, and how the teachers can help best.

By: Elizabeth Crawford, Joseph K. Torgesen (2006)
Improving the effectiveness of interventions for struggling readers requires a school-level system for early identification of 'at risk' students and then providing those students with intensive interventions. Learn from Reading First schools with demonstrated success in reaching struggling readers.

By: G. Emerson Dickman (2006)
RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach, rather it is a process that aims to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction that works best for students. This article provides a quick overview of RTI as it relates to reading.

By: Louise Spear-Swerling (2005)
Spelling difficulties can be enduring in individuals with reading disabilities, sometimes even after reading has been successfully remediated. Addressing spelling difficulties is important, because poor spelling can hamper writing and can convey a negative impression even when the content of the writing is excellent.

By: Joanne Meier, Karen Freck (2005)
Children come to our classrooms from so many different ability levels and backgrounds. As a teacher, it's important to recognize and know what to do to help a struggling reader.

By: National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (2005)

The purpose of this National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD) report is to examine the concepts, potential benefits, practical issues, and unanswered questions associated with responsiveness to intervention (RTI) and learning disabilities (LD). A brief overview of the approach is provided, including attributes, characteristics, and promising features, as well as issues, concerns, unanswered questions, and research needs.



By: Judy Shanley (2005)
When looking for a professional to deliver tutoring services to your child, what are some of the important questions to ask and issues to keep in mind?

By: Kathryn Drummond (2005)
About 10 million children have difficulties learning to read. The good news is that more than 90 percent of struggling readers can overcome their difficulties if they receive appropriate treatment at early ages.

By: Reading Rockets (2005)
School psychologists play a critical role in the lives of children who are struggling to learn. More and more, for example, school psychologists are leaders in developing and carrying out the assessments and placements decisions that impact students from the beginning of their school careers. With your help, schools can reduce the number of students who lag behind grade level – and increase the number of successful readers.

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The specific signs of dyslexia, both weaknesses and strengths, vary widely. Problems with oral language, decoding, fluency, spelling, and handwriting are addressed, as well as strengths in higher order thinking skills.

By: Sally E. Shaywitz (2004)
The earliest clues involve mostly spoken language. The very first clue to a language (and reading) problem may be delayed language. Once the child begins to speak, look for difficulties with rhyming, phonemic awareness, and the ability to read common one-syllable words.

By: Sally M. Reis, Robert Colbert (2004)

Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in elementary and secondary school. This article looks at what kinds of support students with this profile need, and how school counselors can provide it.



By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
A look at three pivotal longitudinal studies that clearly show: Late bloomers are rare; skill deficits are almost always what prevent children from blooming as readers.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
Early intervention works. Because it is also expensive, it's important to be able to identify the kids who are most at risk of reading failure. Thanks to a new generation of screening assessments, we can identify these students as early as kindergarten — and then invest in interventions for them.

By: Suzanne Carreker (2004)
This article describes the most common characterists of dyslexia and other learning disorders, and what you can do if you suspect your child has a problem.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2004)
If your child or student is a "poor" listener, frequently misunderstands speech, and has difficulty following directions, read this article. Learn symptoms of Central Auditory Processing Disorder, how it is diagnosed, and what can be done about it.

By: Teri James Bellis (2004)
This article, from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, distinguishes auditory processing disorder from other disorders. Symptoms and treatment are described. An explanation is provided of the role of the multidisciplinary team and the role of the audiologist, which is the only profession that can legitimately diagnose auditory processing disorders.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2004)
The U.S. Department of Education developed this brief guide for reading tutors. It lists ways that tutoring helps both the learner and the tutor, and provides practical tips that can help tutors be more effective in their work.

By: Virginia Berninger, Donna Rury Smith, Louise O'Donnell (2004)

This article discusses current research-supported instructional practices in reading and writing. It also reviews alternatives to ability-achievement discrepancy in identifying students for special education services, as well as introduces the idea that ability-achievement discrepancies should be based on specific cognitive factors that are relevant to specific kinds of learning disabilities rather than Full Scale IQ.



By: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (2004)
Children with auditory processing disorder (APD) often do not recognized the subtle differences between sounds in words because a dysfunction makes it difficult for the brain to interpret the information. The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders presents basic information on symptoms, diagnosis, and current research of APD.

By: Tyler Currie (2003)
Everyone said his 10-year-old student would never learn to read. For a long time, he believed it, too.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
If a child's history suggests increased risk for reading difficulties, it is critical that he or she receive high-quality reading instruction, early intervention, parent support and special education, if needed.

By: Reading Rockets (2003)
The following is a general list of risk factors for reading difficulties by grade level. Please note that the list is not all-inclusive and should be interpreted with reference to age and grade expectations.

By: Marianne S. Meyer (2003)
Parents, does your child need to be evaluated for a learning disability? If so, read how to find the best professional, prepare for evaluation, and get the most information from the experience.

By: Lisa Trei (2003)
For the first time, researchers have shown that the brains of dyslexic children can be rewired -- after undergoing intensive remediation training -- to function more like those found in normal readers.

By: Lynn S. Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs (2003)
Progress monitoring is an assessment technique that tells teachers how and when to adjust curriculum so that students meet benchmark goals by the end of the year. This research shows that progress monitoring is an effective way to set and meet academic goals.

By: Laurice Joseph (2002)
Get an overview of the characteristics associated with reading problems as well as the planning and implementation of effective interventions. Fundamental components of teaching such as scaffolding, connecting to prior knowledge, motivating, and providing opportunities to practice skills should be implemented.

By: Jessica Blom-Hoffman, Julie F. Dwyer, Angela T. Clarke, Thomas J. Power (2002)
Learn how school psychologists can partner with reading specialists and classroom teachers to evaluate the benefits of early intervention reading programs in their districts.

By: Linda Jacobson (2002)
The Parent-Child Home Program, a Manhasset, NY-based home visiting instigative for 2- and 3- year old children which has operated in Massachusetts and New York for years, is now proving so successful that it is expanding service to four other states. The PCHP focuses on children who are deemed to be at the greatest risk of failure in school – those with low-income parents who have limited education.

By: Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, Lynn Larsen (2001)
This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills: (a) providing effective writing instruction, (b) tailoring instruction to meet the individual needs,(c) intervening early, (d) expecting that each child will learn to write, (e) identifying and addressing roadblocks to writing, and (f) employing technologies.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
First and foremost, struggling readers need excellent reading instruction from their classroom teachers in order to overcome their difficulties. Many schools are also equipped to provide extra help to the children who need it.

By: Debra Johnson, Angela Rudolph (2001)

This article takes the approach that if we avoid school failure in the first place, there might be less of a reason to consider retention. Specific “strategies” are described, including: intensifying learning, providing professional development to assure skilled teachers, expanding learning options, assessing students in a manner to assist teachers, and intervening in time to arrest poor performance.



By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
From annual goals to special education services, there are certain categories of information required by law to be included in a student's Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Learn what these categories are in this overview of the content of IEP's.

By: G. Reid Lyon (2000)
Children may struggle with reading for a variety of reasons, including limited experience with books, speech and hearing problems, and poor phonemic awareness.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
Parents and teachers as well as other professionals are required by law to be involved in writing a student's IEP. Find out about the members of an IEP team and the roles they play.

By: Lisa Küpper, Jean Kohanek (2000)
The special education process under IDEA is designed to ensure that each individual child's needs are carefully considered and addressed. Learn ten steps in the special education process, from evaluation to reviewing student progress.

By: Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (2000)
Parents are often the best educational advocates for their children, especially children with a learning disability. The Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (CCLD) has developed the following tips to help parents champion their child.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2000)
Dyslexia is the most common cause of reading, writing and spelling difficulties. This article provides a brief overview list of typical signs of dyslexia in preschool and kindergarten.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2000)
If your child hasn't started speaking by age one and or you are worried about their speech and language skills, there may be a concern. Early identification is key. They need to receive treatment before school begins so they won't miss out on essential pre-reading skills. Learn what the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has to say about early identification, evaluation, and speech-language treatments.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Parents who have a child they suspect has a disability are likely to have many questions about special education. Find answers to commonly asked questions about special education eligibility, IEP's, and re-evaluation in this guide for parents.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Your child may be eligible for special services that will help him or her succeed as a reader. Find out basic information about special education and which children are eligible for receiving special education services.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (1999)
Evaluation is used to identify the children who are eligible for special education and the type of help they need. Find out four steps in the evaluation process, from analyzing known information to developing a program.

By: Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, Catherine Snow (1999)
Hispanic students in the United States are at especially high risk of reading difficulties. Despite progress over the past 15 to 20 years, they are about twice as likely as non-Hispanic whites to read well below average for their age.

By: Susan Burns, Peg Griffin, Catherine Snow (1999)
Knowing which children are more likely to be at risk for reading problems allows for early intervention to prevent the majority of these problems from developing. Learn what group and individual factors make certain children at risk.

By: Joseph K. Torgesen (1998)
Early identification is crucial when it comes to helping children who are having trouble learning to read. This seminal article by Joseph Torgesen explains the assessment process and reviews the more commonly used assessment tools.

By: Catherine Snow, Susan Burns, Peg Griffin (1998)
Knowing children with a family history of difficulties are more likely to have trouble learning to read means that efforts can be made with these children to prevent difficulties from developing.

By: Susan Gruskin, Kim Silverman, Veda Bright (1997)
Parents who suspect their children have special needs can take several steps to make sure they get the support they need to help their children succeed. Find out some of these steps in these tips for parents.

By: Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities (1997)
The most common learning disability is difficulty with language and reading. Here are some warning signs of learning disabilities to look for in preschool and elementary school children.

"The things I want to know are in books. My best friend is the man who'll get me a book I [haven't] read." — Abraham Lincoln