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Archived: Fluency articles

Many of our articles dated 2000 and earlier can now be found in this archive.

By: Bruce Murray (1999)
Beginning readers are not usually fluent, but classroom practices can help them develop this important skill. This article describes both direct and indirect methods for increasing fluency through classroom instruction.

By: G. Reid Lyon (1997)
While the ability to read words accurately is a necessary skill in learning to read, the speed at which this is done becomes a critical factor in ensuring that children understand what they read.

By: Texas Education Agency (1996)
School-aged children build skills in a variety of areas to become successful readers. Learn activities parents can use at home to expand their knowledge of letter/sound relationships and skills in decoding, writing, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension of a variety of texts.

By: Ed Kame'enui, Marilyn J. Adams, G. Reid Lyon (1996)
This list of tips provides concrete strategies teachers can use to develop fluent, reflective reading.

By: Reading Rockets (1992)
There are several informal assessment tools for assessing various components of reading. The following are ten suggested tools for teachers to use.

By: Marilyn J. Adams (1990)
One of the earliest efforts in the recent trend to synthesize what we know from reading research, Marilyn Adams' 1990 book, "Beginning To Read" was a landmark review of the research on phonics and reading acquisition. Read her description of what she did and what she learned as she went through the process of producing this report.

"So please, oh PLEASE, we beg, we pray, go throw your TV set away. And in its place you can install, a lovely bookshelf on the wall." — Roald Dahl