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All Early Literacy Development articles

By: Reading Rockets (2013)

Preschool aged children love to write — they're always in search of a marker or crayon. Those early scribbles are an important step on the path to literacy. Parents and preschool teachers can support a writer's efforts in some very simple ways. And it's never too early to start!



By: Reading Rockets (2013)
Smartphones and tablets are everywhere, and even our youngest children interact with technology on a daily basis. Find out what you as a parent can be doing to help your young learner navigate the digital world — you may need to reconsider how you connect with your child during technology use.

By: Sonia Q. Cabell, Laura S. Totorelli, Hope Gerde (2013)

Providing young children with rich writing experiences can lay a foundation for literacy learning. This article presents a framework for individualizing early writing instruction in the preschool classroom.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Discover simple at-home activities you can use to help your child understand the connection between the letters of the alphabet and the sound associated with each letter.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Discover the importance of early language, listening, and speaking on literacy development. If you suspect that your child or a student is struggling with speech, language, and/or hearing problems, learn more about testing and assessment, accommodations, and additional professional help. You'll also find tips on reading aloud with children who have speech and language problems or who are deaf or hard of hearing.

By: The Language Diversity and Literacy Development Research Group, Harvard Graduate School of Education (2012)

The Lead for Literacy initiative is a series of one-page memos for policymakers and early literacy leaders on how to improve young children's literacy, birth to age 9. Using evidence from research, these briefs are designed to help leaders avoid common mistakes and present solutions and strategies for scalability and impact.



By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Calendars help young children learn the basics of the days of the week and the months of the year. Your family calendar offers opportunities for other learning as well, including vocabulary, sequencing, and math.

By: Reading Rockets (2012)
To get the most out of a shared reading, encourage your child to appreciate the pictures, and also guide their attention to printed words. Doing so may help your child's reading, spelling, and comprehension skills down the road.

By: Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (2012)

By: Reading Rockets (2012)
Parents are a child's first teacher, and there are many simple things you can do every day to share the joy of reading while strengthening your child's literacy skills.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Reading aloud is one of the most important things parents and teachers can do with children. Learn about how reading aloud builds important foundational skills, such as introducing vocabulary, building comprehension skills, and providing a model of fluent, expressive reading. And get tips on how to make the most out of your read alouds.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Preschool teachers and child care providers play a critical role in promoting literacy, preventing reading difficulties, and preparing young children for kindergarten. Learn more about the characteristics of a quality preschool program, activities that build a solid foundation for reading, and how to advocate for your preschool child if you suspect learning delays.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Get the basic facts about what it takes for a young child to learn to read, best practices in teaching reading, the importance of oral language in literacy development, why so many children struggle, and more in this overview.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn more about how very young children acquire the language and phonemic awareness skills that will help them become strong readers, warning signs of delayed development, and how parents can support their child's literacy skills through meaningful conversation and read alouds.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Find tips on how to read with your child from the time he is born, learn how to build comprehension and critical thinking skills during read alouds, browse our book-centered activity packs, and discover links to dozens of themed book lists.

By: Reading Rockets (2011)
Learn why phonological awareness is critical for reading and spelling, milestones for acquiring phonological skills, effective teaching strategies like rhyming games, how parents can help build skills, and more.

By: What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education (2011)
The What Works Clearinghouse reviewed the research on two practices used in center-based settings with 3- to 5-year-old preK children, as well as a number of specific curricula. Positive results are shown for (1) Phonological awareness training and (2) Interactive and dialogic reading.

By: Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center (2010)
Learn about American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual programs to support the acquisition, learning, and use of ASL and English to meet the needs of diverse learners who are deaf and hard of hearing.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2010)

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Letters are all around us! Here are some ideas to use print found in your everyday environment to help develop your child's reading skills.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Almost every interaction in a child's world is preparing them to become a reader and writer. This article outlines the stages of writing development, and tips for adults to help along the way.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
In preschool, your child will learn many types of skills. Reading books together in which the characters are going through the same thing can also help your preschooler develop these important skills.Below are four books in which the characters are learning some of the same skills as your preschooler. Consider adding these to your next stack from the library.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Students who comprehend the most from their reading are those who know a lot about words. These students know about word prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and multiple meanings of words. Families can help develop word knowledge through simple conversations focused on words.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
It's important to remember that a lack of sleep can greatly impact your preschooler's behavior and ability to have a good day at preschool. Try this little experiment with your child to make sure they understand and maintain an appropriate sleep schedule.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
Choosing a preschool for your child can be a tough decision; what works for one child may not work for another. This is particularly true for a preschooler with special learning or behavior needs. Get a head start on finding the right setting for your preschooler.

By: Reading Rockets (2010)
As parent, you know how important it is to set aside some time everyday to read with your baby or toddler. If you've got a squiggler in your house, see if these tips help your reading time go a little more smoothly.

By: Alice Thomas, Glenda Thorne (2009)
Parents and teachers can do a lot to encourage higher order thinking. Here are some strategies to help foster children's complex thinking.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2009)
Basic listening skills and "word awareness" are critical precursors to phonological awareness. Learn the milestones for acquiring phonological skills.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Blending (combining sounds) and segmenting (separating sounds) are phonological awareness skills that are necessary for learning to read. Developing your child's phonological awareness is an important part of developing your child as a reader. Learn how working on phonological awareness can be fun and easy below.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
By providing an environment rich in language and where thinking is encouraged, you can help your preschooler develop important numeracy and literacy skills. Here are four everyday examples of ways to integrate language and math.

By: Bruce Murray (2009)
Phoneme awareness is the ability to identify phonemes, the vocal gestures from which words are constructed, when they are found in their natural context as spoken words. Children need phoneme awareness to learn to read because letters represent phonemes in words.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
Talking to and reading with your child are two terrific ways to help them hear and read new words. Conversations and questions about interesting words are easy, non-threatening ways to get new words into everyday talk. Here are some ideas to get you started.

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
"Get Ready to Read" is a fast, free, research-based, and easy-to-use screening tool. It consists of 20 questions that parents and caregivers can ask a four-year-old to see if he or she is on track for learning how to read.

By: National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) (2009)

Learn more about where to find help if you suspect that your child may have a developmental delay. A developmental evaluation will be used to decide if your child needs early intervention services and/or a treatment plan specifically tailored to meet a child's individual needs.



By: Reading Rockets (2009)
A simple trip to the grocery store can turn into a real learning experience for your preschooler. Below are some easy ways to build literacy and math skills while getting your shopping done at the same time!

By: Reading Rockets (2009)
A simple trip to the grocery store can turn into a real learning experience for your child. Below are some easy ways to build literacy and math skills while getting your shopping done at the same time!

By: The National Early Literacy Panel (2009)
The National Early Literacy Panel looked at studies of early literacy and found that there are many things that parents and preschools can do to improve the literacy development of their young children and that different approaches influence the development of a different pattern of essential skills.

By: National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) (2009)
It's never too early to start looking for ways to help your child succeed in learning. This article covers children who are under 2 and who are in preschool. They have rights under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Find out the first steps to take if you suspect your child has difficulty learning.

By: Rebecca Silverman (2009)
The principles of a multidimensional vocabulary program hold promise for supporting the vocabulary development of all students, especially English language learners. Eight characteristics of a multidimensional approach are described. The first is the introduction of new words through engaging children's literature.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Human brains are naturally wired to speak; they are not naturally wired to read and write. With teaching, children typically learn to read at about age 5 or 6 and need several years to master the skill.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Phonological awareness is critical for learning to read any alphabetic writing system. And research shows that difficulty with phoneme awareness and other phonological skills is a predictor of poor reading and spelling development.

By: Louisa Moats, Carol Tolman (2008)
Familiarity with the five essential components (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) in core, comprehensive reading programs is necessary for all teachers of reading. Although all components are needed at all levels, different skills and activities are emphasized at different stages of reading development.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Dr. Robert Pianta, director of the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning at the University of Virginia, talks about the benefits and characteristics of a good preschool program. View transcript >

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)
Every child is unique and has an individual rate of development. This chart represents, on average, the age by which most children will accomplish skills in hearing, understanding, and talking.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Healthy hearing is critical to a child's speech and language development, communication, learning, and social development. Children who do not hear well are at an increased risk of becoming struggling readers. Here are some signals that may indicate a hearing problem.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2008)
The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association offers these age-appropriate ways that parents can engage their young children to help develop speech and language abilities.

By: Susan Hall (2008)
How do parents know if their child's reading delay is a real problem or simply a "developmental lag?" How long should parents wait before seeking help if their child is struggling with reading? Susan Hall answers these questions.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Dads play a critical role in their children's literacy development by modeling reading, sharing stories, exploring the world together, and engaging in meaningful conversations that build critical thinking skills.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Dads play a critical role in their children's literacy development by modeling reading, sharing stories, exploring the world together, and engaging in meaningful conversations that build critical thinking skills. Here are a few suggestions to help fathers strengthen their literacy connections with preschoolers.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Being a toddler is all about action. Encourage continued language developmentand interest in books and reading by keeping things lively and engaging. Everyday experiences are full of opportunities to engage in conversation and develop language skills. The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week.See what works best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
It's never too early to read to your baby. As soon as your baby is born, he or she starts learning. Just by talking to, playing with, and caring for your baby every day, you help your baby develop language skills necessary to become a reader. By reading with your baby, you foster a love of books and reading right from the start. The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child become a happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See what works best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Kindergarten is where most children learn to read and write. Though some kids can do this before entering kindergarten, it is not required or expected. Being ready for kindergarten means having well-developed preschool skills, and being academically, socially, and physically ready for the transition. Here are some signs that your child is ready for kindergarten.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
When engaging in writing, young children often mirror what they see around them; adults and older children writing lists, notes, text messaging. They are observing the way writing is used in our everyday lives. Here are some simple things families can do to support young children's writing.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Read early and read often. The early years are critical to developinga lifelong love of reading. It's never too early to begin reading to your child!The tips below offer some fun ways you can help your child becomea happy and confident reader. Try a new tip each week. See whatworks best for your child.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Play with letters, words, and sounds! Having fun with language helpsyour child learn to crack the code of reading. The tips below offersome fun ways you can help your child become a happy andconfident reader. Try a new tip each week. See what works best foryour child.

By: Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, Connie Loynachan (2008)
This list was created to help teachers know which spelling words should be taught to kids in grades 1–5. The list contains 850 words that account for 80 percent of the words children use in their writing — the ones they need to be able to spell correctly.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Every time you pair a book with an experience, you are giving your child an opportunity to learn more about their world. Find suggestions for books and corresponding activities to extend your preschooler's reading experiences.

By: Reading Rockets (2008)
Every time you pair a book with an experience, you are giving your child an opportunity to learn more about their world. Below are some suggestions for books and corresponding activities to extend your child's reading experiences.

By: Zach Miners, Angela Pascopella (2007)
It might seem that evaluating information online (just one form of "new literacy") and reading a book (more of a foundational literacy) are pretty much the same thing. But there are differences that, when brought into the classroom and incorporated into curricula, are enriching the educational experiences of many K-12 students. Many administrators are beginning to recognize the need to revise their districts' media skills instruction.

By: National Summer Learning Association (2007)
Informal literacy experiences often serve to shape young people's identity as readers and writers as much as or more than formal schooling.Community and family support can emphasize the importance of reading and writing, build confidence, influence young people's literacy habits, and encourage youth to seek out ways to engage in literate activities. Through a renewed national push for literacy on all levels, both families and community members have diverse opportunities in which to impact students' literacy skills.This article offers strategies to develop community engagement.

By: National Council of Teachers of English (2007)
Because success with technology depends largely upon critical thinking and reflection, teachers with relatively little technological skill can provide useful instruction. But schools must support these teachers by providing professional development and up-to-date technology for use in classrooms.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Focus on reading readiness and enjoy winter holidays at the same time with these simple activities you can incorporate into your preschooler's daily routine.

By: National Center for Family Literacy (2007)
Do you enjoy reading? Do you look at the newspaper? Read magazines? Go to the library? Chances are, if you do any of these activities, your preschool child is on his way to becoming a reader.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
As a parent of a beginning reader, it's important to support your child's reading efforts in a positive way and help them along the reading path. Here's a little information about beginning readers, and a few pointers to keep in mind.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Even the youngest child is somewhere on the path to becoming a reader. As a parent, it's important to support your child's efforts in a positive way and help him or her along the reading path. Here's a little information about emergent readers, and a few pointers to keep in mind.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Preschool provides a wonderful opportunity for your child to make new friends, socialize, and learn from an adult. Starting preschool is an exciting (and sometimes nervous!) time for little ones and parents. A few tips might help you and your child get off on the right foot.

By: Colorín Colorado (2007)
Knowing vocabulary words is key to reading comprehension. The more words a child knows, the better he or she will understand the text. Using a variety of effective teaching methods will increase the student's ability to learn new words.

By: Lea M. McGee, Judith Schickedanz (2007)

Research has demonstrated that the most effective read-alouds are those where children are actively involved asking and answering questions and making predictions, rather than passively listening. This article describes in detail a technique for a three-step interactive read-aloud using sophisticated storybooks.



By: FPG Child Development Institute (2007)
Can teachers and parents of preschoolers identify learning problems early enough to prevent problems later in school? The Recognition & Response model helps adults know what to look for and how to help, so that later remediation and special education may not be necessary.

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Susan B. Neuman served as the U.S. Assistant Secretary for Elementary and Secondary Education where she helped establish the Reading First and Early Reading First programs. She is a professor in Educational Studies at the University of Michigan, specializing in early literacy development, and former director of the Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Ability (CIERA).

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Most words in a child's vocabulary come from everyday encounters with language. Children pick up language from books, media, and conversations with the people in their lives. Here are some ways you can increase your child's vocabulary and background knowledge, and strengthen the foundation for their reading success.

By: Scholastic, Inc. (2007)
Your child walks like you, talks like you, and absorbs everything you do. So set the right example when it comes to reading. If you want your child to be a good reader, be one yourself!

By: Reading Rockets (2007)
Nursery rhymes are important for young children because they help develop an ear for our language. Both rhyme and rhythm help kids hear the sounds and syllables in words, which helps kids learn to read! Here are some activities and recommended poetry books to aid your child's developing poetry, rhyming, and rhythm skills.

By: The Access Center (2007)
The literacy-rich environment emphasizes the importance of speaking, reading, and writing in the learning of all students. This involves the selection of materials that will facilitate language and literacy opportunities; reflection and thought regarding classroom design; and intentional instruction and facilitation by teachers and staff.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2007)
Parents — you are your child's most important teacher! Using a few of these ideas, you can help your child enter the classroom ready to read.

By: West Bloomfield Township Public Library (2006)
Talking to your child helps expand vocabulary, develop background knowledge, and inspire a curiosity about the world – all of which help with learning to read! Here are some simple activities you can do at home to get your child ready to read.

By: West Bloomfield Township Public Library (2006)
Don't forget to add non-fiction books to your reading routine! Kids can follow their own interests and learn about the world around them by reading about bugs, dinosaurs, or outer space. You can also use the information in books to do activities at home – make green eggs and ham like Sam I Am, or a newspaper hat like Curious George!

By: Mary Ruth Coleman, Virginia Buysse, Jennifer Neitzel (2006)
Learn about an early intervening system being developed for young children, called Recognition and Response, designed to help parents and teachers respond to learning difficulties in young children who may be at risk for learning disabilities as early as possible, beginning at age 3 or 4, before they experience school failure and before they are referred for formal evaluation and possible placement in special education.

By: Susan Neuman (2006)
Background knowledge is crucial to a child's academic success. Young children, especially those from at-risk communities, need broad and deep exposure to informational text and rich vocabulary in order to develop more complex thinking skills.

By: Dorothy Strickland, Shannon Riley-Ayers (2006)

By: Louisa Moats (2006)
Many young readers are puzzled by the rules and exceptions of spelling. Research shows that learning to spell and learning to read rely on much of the same underlying knowledge. Learn more about the relationships between letters and sounds and how a proper understanding of spelling mechanics can lead to improved reading.

By: AARP (2005)
Reading with your grandchild is one of the most important activities you can do together. This article will give you some tips as to how to make the most of this special time.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2005)
Children pick up languages much more easily than adults. This article answers some common questions about raising bilingual children.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
What's typical development? And what can parent do to be sure their child is getting the stimulation he or she needs? Here's a list of what to look for as a child learns and grows from infancy to preschool.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Here are some activities designed to be fun for both you and your toddler as well as to help your young child (ages 1 to 3) gain the skills needed to get ready for school.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Here are three activities, designed to be fit easily into parents' daily routines, that can help babies learn and develop.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
These activities are for families and caregivers who want to help their preschool children to learn and to develop the skills necessary for success in school — and in life.

By: Candace Cortiella (2005)

This article provides an overview of the federal No Child Left Behind law and includes information to help parents use provisions of NCLB to ensure that their child has access to appropriate instruction.



By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (2005)
Children take their first critical steps toward learning to read and write very early in life. Long before they can exhibit reading and writing production skills, they begin to acquire some basic understandings of the concepts about literacy and its functions.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
The first five years of a child's life are a time of tremendous physical, emotional, social, and cognitive growth. The experiences a child has during this time can make an impact on their readiness to learn. Here the Education Department offers some tips to guide parents in choosing childcare.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2005)
Long before your child enters school, you can do many things to help him or her develop language. When young children are provided with opportunities to listen to and use language constantly, they can begin to acquire the essential building blocks for learning how to read.

By: The Access Center (2005)
How do you choose the best method for measuring reading progress? This brief article describes which assessments to use for different reading skills so that you can make sure all students are making progress towards becoming readers!

By: Partnership for Reading (2004)
Guided oral reading is an instructional strategy that can help students improve a variety of reading skills, including fluency. This article explains how to implement it in your classroom.

By: American Federation of Teachers (2004)
A look at three pivotal longitudinal studies that clearly show: Late bloomers are rare; skill deficits are almost always what prevent children from blooming as readers.

By: The Lee Pesky Learning Center (2004)
Music is a great way to introduce children to sounds and words! Research indicates that exposure to music has numerous benefits for a child's development.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment of letter/sound recognition, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
An informal assessment of the concepts of print, including what the assessment measures, when is should be assessed, examples of questions, and the age or grade at which the assessment should be mastered.

By: National PTA (2004)
This article from the National PTA features ideas on how to help your school age child improve their reading skills and tips on how to develop pre-reading skills in younger children.

By: National PTA (2004)
Parents want the best for their children. Reading can open a window on the world, bringing chances to learn, enjoy and create. Even though schools teach reading and writing, home is the first and best place for your child's love of reading to grow.

By: U.S. Department of Education (2004)
What parents do or don't do in the preschool years has a lasting impact on children's reading ability. Learn some facts about the importance and need for literacy experiences in the primary grades.

By: Kerry Hempenstall (2004)
This article explores what happens when three children with very different learning styles enter the classroom.

By: Partnership for Reading (2004)
While most parents take a dedicated interest in their children's schooling, particularly the first few grades, many may not be aware of what is considered proper curriculum – and whether their children's schools are teaching at an appropriate level.

By: Marilyn J. Adams, Barbara Foorman, Ingvar Lundberg, Terri Beeler (2004)
Activities that stimulate phonemic awareness in preschool and elementary school children are one sure way to get a child ready for reading! Here are eight of them from expert Marilyn Jager Adams.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
The following are sample charts you can use when assessing students informally in the classroom. Most of the assessments here should be given one-on-one.

By: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (2004)
Hearing the difference between similar sounding words such as grow and glow is easy for most children, but not for all children. Children who unable to hear these differences will be confused when these words appear in context, and their comprehension skills will suffer dramatically.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
How can you help kids develop print awareness? Here are some sample questions and prompts you can use before, during, and after a read aloud activity to help children activate basic knowledge about print and books.

By: Pamela A. Solvie (2004)
Learn the basics of how a digital whiteboard works and potential benefits of using the technology in early literacy instruction. Results of a research study in a first grade classroom reveal that digital whiteboards are effective as an organizational tool for lesson preparation and followup instruction; provide opportunities for scaffolded learning; and stimulate greater student engagement.

By: Reading Rockets (2004)
Children must understand how speech sounds work to be ready for instruction in reading and writing. There are many activities that you can do with your students to help them increase their knowledge of speech sounds and their relationship to letters.

By: Between the Lions (2003)
Creating a word family chart with the whole class or a small group builds phonemic awareness, a key to success in reading. Students will see how words look alike at the end if they sound alike at the end — a valuable discovery about our alphabetic writing system. They'll also see that one little chunk (in this case "-an") can unlock lots of words!

By: Susan Jones (2002)
Here are some concrete techniques that children can use to study spelling. This article also shares guidelines teachers and students should keep in mind, because practice makes permanent.

By: Isabel Beck, Margaret McKeown, Linda Kucan (2002)
Learn some of the ways that pre-kindergarten through elementary school teachers can enhance the vocabulary development of young children. It focuses on teaching words from texts that are read aloud to children and presents activities that help young children make sense of new words.

By: Debra Viadero (2002)
This article says that according to a new study, former full-day kindergartners were more than twice as likely as children without any kindergarten experiences – and 26 percent more likely than graduates of half-day programs – to have made it to 3rd and 4th grade without having repeated a grade. This study was presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

By: Sebastian Wren (2002)
Who can understand all the jargon that's being tossed around in education these days? Consider all the similar terms that have to do with the sounds of spoken words — phonics, phonetic spelling, phoneme awareness, phonological awareness, and phonology — all of them share the same "phon" root, so they are easy to confuse, but they are definitely different, and each, in its way, is very important in reading education.

By: Texas Education Agency (2002)
Children's knowledge of letter names and shapes is a strong predictor of their success in learning to read. Knowing letter names is strongly related to children's ability to remember the forms of written words and their ability to treat words as sequences of letters.

By: Texas Education Agency (2001)
Print awareness is a child's earliest understanding that written language carries meaning. The foundation of all other literacy learning builds upon this knowledge. The following are guidelines for teachers in how to promote print awareness and a sample activity for assessing print awareness in young children.

By: Texas Education Agency (2001)
Children with print awareness can begin to understand that written language is related to oral language. Children who lack print awareness are unlikely to become successful readers. Indeed, children's performance on print awareness tasks is a very reliable predictor of their future reading achievement.

By: Beverley B. Swanson (2001)
This advice for parents details what they can do to help preschoolers become readers, and help school-age children improve their reading skills.

By: Laura Bush (2001)
Quality can look different in individual primary grade classrooms. However, there are certain characteristics of effective early reading programs that parents can look for in their children's classrooms. First Lady Laura Bush presents a list of these characteristics in this guide for parents.

By: National Institute for Literacy (2001)

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
Reading is a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Learn how readers integrate these facets to make meaning from print.

By: Head Start Information and Publication Center (2001)
Head Start is a Federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The Head Start program is operated by local non-profit organizations in almost every county in the country.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
This article answers four common questions teachers have about vocabulary instruction, including what words to teach and how well students should know vocabulary words.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
The scientific research on vocabulary instruction reveals that 1) most vocabulary is learned indirectly, and 2) some vocabulary must be taught directly.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
The following are answers to frequent questions teachers have about fluency instruction.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
Fluency develops gradually over time and through practice. At the earliest stage of reading development, students' oral reading is slow and labored because students are just learning to "break the code" – to attach sounds to letters and to blend letter sounds into recognizable words.

By: Partnership for Reading (2001)
Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify, hear, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words. Manipulating the sounds in words includes blending, stretching, or otherwise changing words.

By: Chia-Hui Lin (2001)
Teaching reading and writing to young children in American has always been an area of controversy and debate (Teale & Yokota, 2000), and it remains so today. The purpose of this article is to review various research studies and to identify essential elements of effective early literacy classroom instruction.

By: Grover J. (Russ) Whitehurst (2001)
Reading skills provide a critical foundation for children's academic success. Children who read well read more and, as a result, acquire more knowledge in numerous domains.

By: Diane Henry Leipzig (2001)
It's not an easy thing, learning to read. This article provides a brief overview of what is involved and what parents, teachers, and everyone else who touches the life of a child can do to help those who struggle.

By: Michael Pressley (2000)
Without a strong background in basic skills like decoding and vocabulary-building, reading comprehension is impossible. This article offers research-based strategies for building on these and other skills to increase student understanding of what is read.

By: Learning First Alliance (2000)
Early skills in alphabetics serve as strong predictors of reading success, while later deficits in alphabetics is the main source of reading difficulties. This article argues the importance of developing skills in alphabetics, including phonics and decoding.

By: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000)
The National Reading Panel identified three predominant elements to support the development of reading comprehension skills: vocabulary instruction, active reading, and teacher preparation to deliver strategy instruction.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
Identifying a reading problem is a challenge without a sense for what typical literacy development looks like. Find out what language accomplishments are typical for most children at age five.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
Identifying a reading problem is a challenge without a sense for what typical literacy development looks like. Find out what language accomplishments are typical for most children from birth to age three.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
Identifying a reading problem is a challenge without a sense for what typical literacy development looks like. Find out what language accomplishments are typical for most children at age six.

By: Andrea DeBruin-Parecki, Kathryn Perkinson, Lance Ferderer (2000)
Identifying a reading problem is a challenge without a sense for what typical literacy development looks like. Find out what language accomplishments are typical for most children at the age of three to four.

By: Learning First Alliance (2000)
Early skills in alphabetics serve as strong predictors of reading success, while later deficits in alphabetics is the main source of reading difficulties. This article argues the importance of developing shills in alphabetics, including phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, and concepts of print.

By: Donald N. Langenberg (2000)
According to research, some instructional methods for teaching reading are more effective than others. Find out what the National Reading Panel's review of the research revealed about best practices in reading instruction.

By: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (2000)
Alphabetics is a term for the letter-sound elements of learning to read, including phonemic awareness and phonics. In this summary, find out what practices for teaching alphabetics have been proven effective by research.

By: International Dyslexia Association (2000)
Dyslexia is the most common cause of reading, writing and spelling difficulties. This article provides a brief overview list of typical signs of dyslexia in preschool and kindergarten.

By: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (2000)
If your child hasn't started speaking by age one and or you are worried about their speech and language skills, there may be a concern. Early identification is key. They need to receive treatment before school begins so they won't miss out on essential pre-reading skills. Learn what the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has to say about early identification, evaluation, and speech-language treatments.

By: Learning First Alliance (2000)
We know from research that an effective reading program must address several aspects of reading. Among others, these aspects include the alphabetic code, fluency, comprehension, and motivation.

By: Learning First Alliance (1998)
When it comes to reading, the nine months of first grade are arguably the most important in a student's schooling.

By: Kerry Hempenstall (1998)
Dr. Kerry Hempenstall, now a Senior Lecturer at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in Victoria, Australia, recalls that magic time when he first learned how to read.

By: Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (1998)
Learn ten lessons from research about the home and school experiences necessary for reading success in this concise overview.

By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (1998)
Children go through phases of reading development from preschool through third grade — from exploration of books to independent reading. In preschool, children explore their environment and build the foundations for learning to read and write. Find out what parents and teachers can do to support preschool literacy skills.

By: National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (1998)

Children go through phases of reading development from preschool through third grade — from exploration of books to independent reading. In kindergarten, children develop basic concepts of print and begin to engage in and experiment with reading and writing. Find out what parents and teachers can do to support kindergarten literacy skills.



By: David J. Chard, Jean Osborn (1998)

Many teachers will be using supplemental phonics and word-recognition materials to enhance reading instruction for their students. In this article, the authors provide guidelines for determining the accessibility of these phonics and word recognition programs.



By: U.S. Department of Education (1997)
Child care providers can play a pivotal role in helping young children learn how to read. This collection of tips will help you incorporate reading into your programs.

By: U.S. Department of Education (1997)
Schools play a pivotal role in helping young children learn how to read. This collection of tips will help administrators, teachers, and other school staff members set children on the path to reading.

By: Texas Education Agency (1996)
Research-based reading instruction allows children opportunities to both understand the building blocks and expand their use of language, oral and written. These opportunities are illustrated by classroom activities in these twelve components of reading instruction for grades one through three.

By: Edwin S. Ellis

Phonemic awareness training is essential for students who are at risk for reading difficulties. This article describes the components of phonemic awareness and provides activities that special educators can use to provide this training to at risk students.



"A book is like a garden, carried in the pocket." — Chinese Proverb